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ItemA CASE STUDY OF RURAL PRINCIPALS’ EVALUATIVE PRACTICES USING THE TEXAS TEACHER EVALUATION AND SUPPORT SYSTEM(2021-12-16) Driver, Matthew Kenneth; Bigham, Gary; Barbosa, Ray; Harper, IrmaThe research focus of the scholarly delivery is leadership, specifically instructional leadership, with teacher evaluators as the primary subjects and the practices and strategies they employ using the Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System to improve instructional practices on their campuses. The first scholarly deliverable is a case study article that can be used for teaching doctoral or master’s candidates in the field of educational leadership. The title of this article is “Improving Teacher Evaluation to Improve Student Outcomes at El Camino High School.” The case focuses on the importance that teacher evaluations have on student academic achievement. Students reading the case must examine the data and the narrative, express further questions and plans for obtaining added information, and develop a plan to help school leaders improve their teacher evaluation process to support student learning. The final scholarly deliverable is an empirical article titled “A Case Study of Rural Principals’ Evaluative Practices Using the Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System.” This empirical article focuses on the strategies and practices teacher evaluators employ in the evaluation process to improve instructional practices on their campuses. ItemA Clinical Analysis of the Effect of Antibiotic Administration on the Neonatal Foal Microbiome(2019-01-28) Anderson, Rebecca C; Baker, PhD, Lance; Richeson, PhD, JohnABSTRACT A study was conducted to investigate the effects of antibiotic administration on the neonatal foal microbiome, complete blood count (CBC), and fibrinogen (FIB) concentration. Eleven stock-type newborn foals were studied in the clinical setting. Foals were enrolled in the trial within 24 h of birth and administered treatments according to CBC, fibrinogen, and veterinary decision. Foals were treated with an antibiotic (amikacin and ceftiofur, amikacin and penicillin, or trimethoprim/sulfadiazine; n = 7), or not treated (n = 4). Foals that did not respond to the initial antibiotic treatment based on CBC, fibrinogen, and veterinary supervision were administered subsequent treatment (n = 3). The trial began January 2018 and ended September 2018, with each foal being enrolled from birth to at least 56-d of age. Fecal samples were collected from foals at d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. When a foal experienced approximately 1 mo without treatment or at 56 d, whichever was earliest, a corresponding dam fecal sample was collected by the consulting veterinarian or trained staff. Blood was obtained on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 and analyzed using an automated hemocytometer (IDEXX ProCyte Dx Hematology Analyzer, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME) to determine complete blood count variables. Blood serum was analyzed using an automated analyzer (IDEXX Catalyst Dx Chemistry Analyzer with an Equine 15 CLIP, IDEXX Laboratories), and fibrinogen was determined via IDEXX VetAutoread (IDEXX Laboratories). Fecal samples were submitted to a commercial laboratory (Molecular Research LP, in Shallowater, TX) for DNA sequencing and microbiome analysis. There was no effect of treatment × day interactions for hematology parameters (red blood cell concentration, P = 0.86; white blood cell concentration, P = 0.69; neutrophils, P = 0.59; glucose, P = 0.43; and fibrinogen, P = 0.90). There was an effect of day observed on red blood cell concentration (P < 0.001), white blood cell concentration (P = 0.04), neutrophils (P = 0.03), and fibrinogen (P = 0.02). In addition, there was an effect of treatment (P = 0.02) on fibrinogen. Clostridia and bacteroidia were the most abundant bacteria found in fecal samples of the foal and dam pairs. There was no effect of treatment × day interaction on clostridia (P = 0.24) or bacteroidia (P = 0.35). However, there was a main effect for day (P < 0.001) noted for relative abundance of each bacterium. Although present in very small amounts (< 1%), fibrobacteria was the only class of bacteria to result in an effect of treatment × day interaction (P = 0.05). Bacterial flora became more diverse and similar to the matched dam sample after the completion of any antibiotic treatment. Further research is needed to determine the role specific antibiotics play in the neonatal foal and if antibiotic use has any affects that might carry into adult life. In addition, continued microbiome studies could lead to microbiome analysis being involved in diagnostics. ItemA Colorful Dystopia: An Analysis of the Color Scheme in Hulu's The Handmaid's TaleKnight, Kelsey; Hanson, TrudyThis thesis project focused on the color scheme featured in the first three seasons of Hulu’s The Handmaid’s Tale. The series is based upon Margaret Atwood’s 1985 novel and was adapted into a Hulu original series in 2017. While the series’ content is similar to that of the novel, the producers altered Atwood’s color descriptions to cast a narrowed design aesthetic, resulting in a strong, seven-color scheme showcased through the costumes, set designs, and props. The color scheme then provides viewers with a blueprint for understanding Gilead through pattern recognition, creating metaphorical significance. This study examined HMT’s color scheme by assigning a metaphor to each color and illustrating the metaphor through the series’ production elements. The colors were examined both individually and collectively to determine the color scheme’s impact on the storyline. As a result, the study determined that color is a driving force of HMT that creates a deeper understanding of the storyline through the metaphors identified. In turn, HMT’s use of color creates a unique television experience for many viewers. ItemA COMPARISON OF BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS, CARCASS BY-PRODUCT YIELDS AND CARCASS GRADING PERFORMANCE OF IMPLANTED AND NON-IMPLANTED CROSSBRED STEERS ACROSS VARIOUS MARKETING ENDPOINTS IN A 378-D FEEDING DURATION.(2020-10-05) Pillmore, Sierra Leann; Lawrence, Ty E; Lawrence, TyExperiment 1 consisted of the evaluation of behavioral characteristics of growing steers in response to implant, feeding duration, diurnal rhythm and dietary roughage via monitoring of activity and rumination time. Charolais × Angus steers (n = 80) were randomized to harvest (0, 42, 84, 126, 168, 210, 252, 294, 336 or 378 DOF) and implant treatment (REV: Revalor-XS; on d-0 and d-190 or CON: no implant). Activity and rumination were objectively monitored via accelerometers attached to the left ear. Steers consumed 3 rations throughout the study: starter (38.5% roughage), intermediate (23% roughage), and finishing (8.5% roughage). Data was logged in 2-h increments from 77 steers across 361 d and analyzed using mixed models for repeated measures of activity and rumination. Rumination and activity varied (P < 0.01) within 24-h, exhibiting bimodal patterns; rumination peaked at 0600 and 1400 h and troughed at 1000 and 1800 h. Activity peaked at 0800 and 1800 h and troughed at 0400, 1200-1400, and 2200 h. Steers administered REV ruminated less (364 vs 380 min/d; P = 0.04) than CON, however, 24-h activity was similar (P = 0.29) between treatments. Treatment × roughage interactions (P < 0.01) occurred for rumination and activity. Rumination tended to differ (P = 0.06) between CON consuming 38.5% and 23% roughage, however, CON steers ruminated (P < 0.01) more than REV when consuming 8.5% roughage. Implanted and non-implanted steers ruminated less (P < 0.01) as roughage inclusion decreased from 38.5% and 23% to 8.5% (457 and 439 vs 317 min/d) in the finishing ration. Activity was highest for steers consuming 38.5% roughage and was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments, however, activity decreased (P < 0.01) upon transition to 23 and 8.5% roughage. Activity peaks and troughs can be attributed to processing days and weather events. Implanted steers consuming 8.5% roughage were more active (342 vs. 337 and 333 min/d; P < 0.01) than steers of both treatments consuming 23% roughage. In conclusion, rumination and activity are responsive to hour of day, dietary roughage and growth-promoting implants. Experiment 2 was conducted to investigate the development of non-carcass components of implanted or non-implanted Charolais × Angus steers across various marketing endpoints. Growth promoting implants containing trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E2) are administered to improve rate of gain and feed efficiency of beef cattle. Non-carcass components are by-products of the beef industry that are of metabolic, economic and societal importance. A serial-harvest was conducted to investigate growth of non-carcass components of implanted or non-implanted Charolais × Angus steers. Steers (n = 80) were paired and applied to a 2 x 10 factorial treatment structure in a balanced incomplete block design. Steers were randomly appointed to harvest date (0, 42, 84, 126, 168, 210, 252, 294, 336 or 378 days on feed; DOF) and implant treatment; REV received a Revalor-XS (200mg TBA/40mg E2) on d0 and d190, whereas CON received no implant. Pair was block, steer was experimental unit and data were analyzed using mixed models. Four REV/CON pairs were harvested upon each feeding endpoint. Non-carcass components were removed and weighed; gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) were disassembled, weighed, cleaned, and re-weighed. Empty body weight (EBW), and hot carcass weight (HCW) were 6% greater (P < 0.01) in REV steers vs. CON. No treatment effects (P ≥ 0.12) were observed for fill or dressed carcass yield (DY), however, EBW, HCW and DY increased (P ≤ 0.01) and percentage fill decreased as an effect of DOF. Absolute fill weight did not change across DOF (P ≥ 0.82). Implanted steers had greater (P ≤ 0.05) absolute mass of blood, head, hide, oxtail, liver, spleen, bladder, heart, reticulum, omasum, stomach, small intestine, intestines, GIT, total splanchnic tissue and total offal. Implanted steers also had smaller (P ≤ 0.05) absolute mass of thymus glands and kidney-pelvic-heart fat (KPH) than non-implanted steers. Absolute mass of the spinal cord, small intestine and intestines varied across DOF but did not exhibit linear or quadratic growth, whereas all other tissue weights increased (P ≤ 0.05) or tended to increase (P ≤ 0.06) with DOF. The brain, limbs, thymus, abomasum, KPH and total internal fat (TIF) of REV steers weighed proportionately less (P ≤ 0.03) and the reticulum weighed proportionately more (P = 0.03) than those of CON steers. Proportionate weight of the bladder, gallbladder and spleen was similar for all DOF, whereas all other variables differed (P ≤ 0.04) across DOF. Observed results suggest that TBA + E2 implants increase body and carcass weights and alter many non-carcass components, while reducing excess internal fat accumulation. Improved efficiency associated with TBA + E2 implants has been attributed to a shift in nutrient deposition away from fat deposits often trimmed from the final product, toward the development of lean muscle. Though a decrease in waste fat will improve carcass cutability, a concurrent reduction in intramuscular fat and carcass quality is often observed in implanted animals marketed prior to achieving target composition. A third experiment was designed to evaluate the development of traits contributing to carcass yield and quality in response to implant and days on feed (DOF) in a 2 × 10 factorial study. Charolais × Angus steers (n = 80) were paired for similarity using genetic markers and projected endpoint composition. Pairs were randomized to 1 of 10 harvest dates corresponding to 0, 42, 84, 126, 168, 210, 252, 294, 336 or 378 DOF. Individuals within pair were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 implant treatments, in which REV steers received a Revalor-XS (200mg trenbolone acetate/40mg estradiol; 4 uncoated and 6 coated pellets) implant on d 0 and d 190, while CON steers represented a non-hormone treated (NHTC) marketing strategy and received no implant throughout the feeding period. Upon each feeding endpoint, 8 steers (4-REV/CON pairs) were harvested and the shrunk body weight (SBW), weight of kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH), and hot carcass weight (HCW) were obtained. Carcasses were chilled for 48 h and graded according to USDA quality and yield grade standards. All variables were analyzed using mixed models with implant treatment and DOF as fixed effects and pair as random. While no TRT × DOF interactions (P > 0.05) were observed in yield grade variables, a TRT × DOF interaction occurred (P < 0.01) for skeletal and overall maturity. Implanted steers had a heavier SBW (7%; P < 0.01) and HCW (6%; P < 0.01), and larger (6%; P < 0.01) LM area than non-implanted counterparts. While REV carcasses had 17% less (P < 0.01) KPH than CON carcasses, no treatment effects (P = 0.26) were observed in marbling, suggesting sustained marbling quality throughout the 378-d feeding period. Marbling and 12th rib fat depth increased linearly (P < 0.01) across DOF; SBW, HCW, dressed yield, LM area, KPH, USDA yield grade, and lean maturity increased whereas LM area:HCW decreased quadratically (P < 0.06) with additional DOF. These data support a shift in nutrient deposition from waste-fat accumulation to lean tissue development in response to slow-release TBA + E2 implants compared to NHTC. Additionally, implanted steers exhibited advanced skeletal maturity, however no concurrent compromise in marbling was observed throughout the 378-d feeding period. ItemA COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVE RECRUITMENT METHODS OF IN-STATE AND OUT-OF-STATE STUDENTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AT WEST TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY(2016-06-20) Gammill, Whitley Donn; Kieth, Dr. LanceThe purpose of this descriptive study was to determine which of the current recruiting methods employed by the Department of Agricultural Sciences at West Texas A&M University are most effective in attracting in-state and out-of-state students. Chapman’s Model of Student College Choice served as the theoretical framework for this study. The target population of this descriptive study was identified as undergraduate students enrolled in the Department of Agricultural Sciences as West Texas A&M University. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, data was collected via Qualtrics survey from students claiming a major within the Department of Agricultural Sciences. The instrument used in data collection was adapted from Wildman (1997). Relative to Chapman, the survey looked to measure student characteristics, external influences, and recruiting methods. A seven point Likert type scale, rank order, selections, and short answers were used to capture the data needed. Key external influences upon student college choice found in this study included on and off camp visits, personal conversation with departmental faculty and representatives, parents, and affordability of attendance. Recommendations were made toward collection of longitudinal data in this area as well as best practices to deal with the future growing population of both in-state and out-of-state students. ItemA Divided Media: A Framing Analysis of the United States Television News Coverage of Syrian Refugees(2017-06-08) Reed, Jacob; Osei-Hwere, EnyonamTelevision news organizations report stories through several communicative frames, which impact wide-ranging public opinion, garner immense power, and can influence entire populations. This study examines how U.S. television news organizations reported on Syrian immigrants before and after August 18, 2016 - the date of publication of the powerful photo/video of Omran Daqneesh. While encapsulating the innocence and devastation of many trapped in Syria's ongoing civil war, this Aleppo toddler's experience made global headlines and touched the hearts of millions. A quantitative content analysis of two separate television news organizations, Fox News and MSNBC, was conducted to study the valence and frame type of two politically diverse news sources (i.e., conservative and liberal), using broadcast transcripts pertaining to Syrian immigrants. This thesis analyzes how framing characteristics varied between the sources and scrutinizes how reporting changed before and after the photo/video's release. Broadcast transcripts were retrieved from the LexisNexis database. Primary results exhibited that in the two weeks after the event, television news sources more commonly reported the incident using an episodic frame, while MSNBC reported more positively toward Syrian immigration. Additionally, overall reporting was more positive, regarding Syrian immigration, while many broadcasts were simply valence neutral. ItemA GENETIC COMPARISON OF PITUITARY PARS INTERMEDIA DYSFUNCTION POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EQUINES AT DBH, TO AID IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOLS.(2016-06-20) Coffman, Ashley; Ward, Dr. RockyPituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is the most common endocrine disorder of horses and ponies, and is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting from a loss of dopaminergic periventricular neurons that innervate the pars intermedia. Currently, diagnosis is made by a combination of clinical signs and multiple endocrine hormone tests. Using DNA extracted from equine hair follicles, the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene (DBH) was studied as a candidate gene for association with PPID. Preliminary research indicates high levels of variation in all animals sampled, with no correlation to PPID, indicating further research must be conducted to determine the genes associated with this disorder, as PPID is likely to be influenced by multiple genes and the environment, much like other neurodegenerative disorders. ItemA GEOGRAPHICAL REANALYSIS OF THE SCORPION GENUS ANUROCTONUS POCOCK, 1893 BASED ON MORPHOLOGY, MERISTICS AND MORPHOMETRICS(2016-09-13) Azzinnari, Jessica; Sissom, William DThe scorpion genus Anuroctonus was considered monotypic for over a century before a new species, containing two subspecies, was described in 2004 by Soleglad and Fet. This resulted in three nominal forms: Anuroctonus phaiodactylus Williams 1863, Anuroctonus pococki pococki Soleglad & Fet 2004, and Anuroctonus pococki bajae Soleglad & Fet 2004. Anuroctonus pococki pococki contained enormous variation and it was likely that more species could be described. This study analyzed Anuroctonus morphology, meristics, and morphometrics and addresses problems of diagnosability from the original descriptions of the subspecies Anuroctonus pococki pococki and Anuroctonus pococki bajae. The variation in Anuroctonus pococki pococki was reanalyzed in a geographical context. Discriminant function analyses based on 13 morphometric ratios were performed in an exploratory fashion on populations in the ranges of both subspecies to determine statistical significance and diagnosability. Anuroctonus pococki pococki and Anuroctonus pococki bajae were elevated to species level after diagnosability was determined based on morphology. ItemA Great Time to Be a Nerd: A Phenomenological Study of Pop Culture Enthusiasts and Fandom(2020-02-28) Glenn, Dane Thomas; Franken, NoahThis thesis explores the significance of pop culture and fandom in the lives of local pop culture enthusiasts. Existing fandom studies focus on sports, religion, or politics whereas most media-based pop culture research involves niche fandoms. This study is important because it broadens the scope of the latter, aids to the dissolvement of associated stereotypes, and contributes to a third-wave movement of pop culture fandom research. Eight individuals were selected to participate in this study using purposive sampling. In-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted. By employing Colaizzi’s seven-step method of phenomenological data analysis, subthemes were identified and then categorized in terms of similarity. From there, three dominate themes emerged: nostalgia, connection to media, and social belonging/self-identity. These three themes allow for better understanding as to why pop culture is integral to an individual’s life. ItemA HISTORY OF 30 YEARS OF INDUSTRY SERVICE – THE WEST TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY BEEF CARCASS RESEARCH CENTER(2022-08-01T06:00:00.000Z) Grimes, Becca Brooke; Lawrence, Ty E; Lawrence, Ty E; Tennant, Travis C; Jay W Johnson; McEvers, TrentIn the first analysis, the West Texas A&M University Beef Carcass Research Center (BCRC) carcass grading database (n = 1,079,880) generated from 1992 to 2021 was used to identify carcass outcomes, trends, and associations. Carcass data was collected at 44 federally inspected beef abattoirs in the United States and Canada. Outcomes included hot carcass weight (HCW), loin muscle area (LMA), adjusted 12th rib fat thickness (AFT), calculated yield grade (YG), LMA to HCW ratio (RATIO), marbling score (MARB), hair coat color and sex. Mean carcass outcomes were: YG (2.9), AFT (1.3 cm), HCW (369.7 kg), LMA (87.2 cm2), KPH (2.1%), RATIO (0.2446 cm2/kg) and MARB (Small23). Regression equations were calculated to determine change in carcass outcomes over time. Mean HCW, LMA, YG, and AFT were determined to annually (P < 0.01) increase linearly by 2.35 kg, 0.42 cm2, 0.0062 units and 0.012 cm whereas RATIO decreased (P < 0.01) in a linear manner by 0.00014 cm2/kg, whereas MARB increased (P < 0.01) in a quadratic manner by 0.22 units. Based on these annual trends, predicted means values for carcass outcomes at the year 2050 are as follows: HCW (477.0 kg), LMA (107.1 cm2), AFT (1.8 cm), MARB (Slightly Abundant78), YG (3.15), and RATIO (0.2377 cm2/kg). These data illustrate strong association (P < 0.01) between YG and carcass outcomes. As YG increased by one unit (i.e. YG 2.0 to 3.0), AFT, HCW, and MARB increased (P < 0.01) by 0.5 cm, 14.6 kg, and 3.9 units, whereas LMA and RATIO decreased (P < 0.01) by 7.2 cm2 and 0.0304 cm2/kg. Hot carcass weight was also influential (P < 0.01) upon carcass outcomes. As HCW increased by 100 kg, YG, AFT, LMA and MARB increased (P < 0.01) by 0.51 units, 0.3 cm, 12.7 cm2 and 3.01 units, whereas RATIO decreased by 0.0304 cm2/kg. Similarly, as AFT increased by 0.254 cm, YG, HCW and MARB increased (P < 0.01) by 0.33 units, 5.7 kg, and 1.6 units, whereas LMA and RATIO decreased by 0.54 cm2 and 0.0054 cm2/kg. Quality grade was also strongly associated (P < 0.01) with carcass outcomes; as quality grade increased from Select to Choice, YG (+0.38 units), AFT (+0.22 cm), and HCW (+8.6 kg) increased (P < 0.01), whereas LMA (-1.5 cm2) and RATIO (-0.0756 cm2/kg) decreased. Likewise, as quality grade increased from Choice to Premium Choice, YG (+0.27 units), AFT (+0.18 cm), and HCW (+4.1 kg) increased (P < 0.01), whereas LMA (-1.0 cm2) and RATIO (-0.0054 cm2/kg) decreased. Furthermore, as QG increased from Premium Choice to Prime, YG (+0.22), AFT (+0.16 cm), and HCW (+3.2 kg) increased (P < 0.01) and LMA (-2.9 cm2) and RATIO (-0.0105 cm2/kg) decreased. Steers exhibited greater (P < 0.01) YG (2.88 vs 2.81), and HCW (360.63 vs 334.15 kg) and less (P < 0.01) LMA (86.17 vs 86.64 cm2), AFT (1.24 vs 1.40 cm), MARB (Small22 vs Small44) and RATIO (0.2412 vs 0.2606 cm2/kg) than heifers. The effect of railout status was assessed; carcasses that had been railed off-line for enhanced trimming exhibited lesser (P < 0.01) YG (-0.19), AFT (-0.12 cm), LMA (-2.50 cm2), MARB (-2.10 units) and dramatically lighter HCW (-18.23 kg), but increased RATIO (+0.0074 cm2/kg) compared to non-railout carcasses. Black hided cattle were determined to have increased (P < 0.01) YG (3.04 vs 2.67), AFT (1.35 vs 1.15 cm), HCW (357.5 vs 350.6 kg), KPH (2.15 vs 2.09), and MARB (Small43 vs Small06) and lesser LMA (85.21 vs 87.15 cm2) and RATIO (0.2394 vs 0.2497 cm2/kg) compared to non-black hided cattle. Probability of carcasses grading Choice (CH), Premium Choice (PrCH), or Prime (P) was calculated. As HCW increased from 400 to 500 kg, the probability of grading CH, PrCH, or P increased by 12, 9, and 1.4%, respectively. Likewise, as AFT increased from 1.5 to 2.5 cm, an increase of 21.9, 23.5, and 4.1% occurred in the probability of grading CH, PrCH, and P. In contrast, as LMA increased from 90 to 100 cm2, a decrease of 3.5, 1.9, and 0.20% occurred in the probability of grading CH, PrCH, and P. These data serve as excellent indicators of the future of beef production to be used by beef producers and processors. In the second analysis, the association of liver abnormalities with carcass performance was evaluated on data from 1,542,533 carcasses housed in 2 databases at the West Texas A&M University Beef Carcass Research Center, collected between 2010 and 2021. Liver abnormalities were observed during harvest and scored as: edible liver; A- = 1 to 2 small abscesses or inactive scars; A = 1 to 2 large abscesses or multiple small abscesses; A+ = multiple large abscesses; A+AD = liver adhered to diaphragm; A+OP = open liver abscess; A+AD/OP = adhered to diaphragm with an open liver abscess; cirrhosis, flukes, and telangiectasis. Liver abnormality rates in database 1 were A- = 7.4%, A = 2.7%, A+ = 2.4%, A+AD = 3.9%, A+OP = 1.4%, A+AD/OP = 0.8%, cirrhosis = 0.2%, flukes = 3.6%, telangiectasis = 0.7%, with 77.0% of livers being edible. Liver abnormality rates in database 2 were A- = 7.3%, A = 5.3%, A+ = 4.8%, A+AD = 6.2%, A+OP = 1.7%, A+AD/OP = 1.3%, cirrhosis = 0.1%, flukes = 1.3%, and telangiectasis = 0.6%, with 67.0% of livers being edible. For carcasses with severe abscesses (A+, A+AD, A+OP, A+AD/OP) and cirrhotic livers, HCW was 13.0 kg and 42.5 kg less (P < 0.01) compared to carcasses with edible livers. Carcasses with any abnormality other than telangiectasis had reduced (P < 0.05) HCW. All liver abnormalities resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) LM area, with the exception of telangiectasis, which was determined to be similar (P = 1.0) to edible livers. Less (P < 0.05) 12th-rib subcutaneous fat was observed for carcasses with A-, A, A+, A+AD, and cirrhosis abnormalities compared to carcasses with edible livers. Estimated KPH was less (P < 0.05) for carcasses with livers identified with flukes or cirrhosis abnormalities. Calculated yield grade was less (P < 0.03) for carcasses with A+AD liver scores and cirrhosis than those with edible livers. For both database 1 and 2, geographical location had an effect (P < 0.01) on liver abscess prevalence. In database 1 and 2, the greatest liver abscess prevalence was observed at Toppenish, WA (37.12%) and Arkansas City, KS (68.33%), respectively. Furthermore, seasonality of liver abscesses by month was reported to be lowest in January (14.09 and 24.08%). For database 2, liver abnormality was affected (P < 0.01) by sex class; steers had increased rates of all abscess outcomes compared to heifers. Additionally, cattle type was also observed to have an effect (P < 0.01) on prevalence of liver abscesses. Native cattle exhibited total abscess prevalence of 23.02%, compared to 16.81, 39.24 and 50.18% for Mexican, Holstein and beef x dairy cattle. Beef x dairy cattle exhibited the highest rates for A- (14.21%), A (7.94%), A+ (8.29%), A+OP (4.00%), and A+AD/OP (3.43%) liver abscess categories. These data indicate liver abnormalities, especially severely abscessed, adhered, open and cirrhotic livers, greatly effect HCW, an important economic factor effecting carcass merchandising, and other carcass outcomes. Liver abscess rate had no detrimental effect on marbling score, which may indicate the timing to which liver abscesses are developed during the feeding period compared to deposition of intramuscular fat. These results indicate control of liver abscesses is important in order to prevent losses in carcass value. In the third analysis, the association of lung abnormalities with carcass performance was evaluated on data from 60,843 carcasses housed in the West Texas A&M University Beef Carcass Research Center database and collected from 2010 to 2021 to quantify the relationship of lung health and carcass performance. Lung outcomes were scored for severity of consolidation (N = Normal and < 5% consolidation, 1 = 5 to 15% consolidation, 2 = 15 to 50% consolidation, 3 = >50% consolidation) and presence of fibrin tags (N = None, M = Minor fibrin, E = Extensive fibrin). Lung consolidation had a strong and detrimental effect (P < 0.01) on hot carcass weight, with lung scores of 1, 2, and 3 resulting in 4.2, 13.3, and 29.9 kg less carcass weight compared to carcasses with normal lungs. Minor and extensive fibrin tags (3.5 kg and 7.1 kg, respectively), independent of consolidation, resulted in lighter carcasses (P < 0.01) compared to those with normal lungs. Lung score did not have an effect on marbling score. Both lung tissue consolidation and presence of fibrin tags affected 12th rib fat thickness; lung consolidation scores of 1, 2, and 3 (-0.09, -0.21 and -0.09 cm, respectively) and fibrin tags prevalence of minor and extensive (-0.14 and -0.19 cm) resulted in less (P < 0.01) 12th rib fat thickness compared to carcasses with normal lungs. Similarly, LM area was reduced (P < 0.01) in carcasses with lung consolidation (-1.5, -3.8, and -5.5 cm2) or presence of fibrin tags (-2.3 and -2.7 cm2) compared to carcasses with normal lungs. Additionally, severity of lung consolidation and presence of fibrin tags reduced (P < 0.01) calculated yield grade; lung consolidation and fibrin tags resulted in a 0.08 to 0.20 and 0.09 to 0.13 reduction in overall yield grade, respectively. In addition to lung outcomes, liver abscess outcomes were also collected and analyzed for synergistic effect on carcass outcomes with severity of lung scores. The greatest proportion of carcasses within lung consolidation and presence of fibrin tags (47.67 and 48.88%) exhibited edible livers with a normal lung. Whereas the lowest proportion of carcasses (1.12 and 1.89%) exhibited a 3 lung consolidation score and extensive prevalence of fibrin tags with a major abscess outcome. Severity of lung consolidation was determined to have a more dramatic effect on carcass weight than presence of fibrin tags within liver abscess categories. Within the edible, minor and major abscess category, as lung consolidation increased from normal to 3 and presence of fibrin tags increased from normal to extensive, a decrease in carcass weight (21.4, 30.9, and 50.1 kg; 5.5, 7.4, and 5.4 kg), LM area (4.7, 3.9, and 6.3 cm2; 2.0, 3.1, and 1.6 cm2), and AFT (0.02, 0.18, and 0.13 cm; 0.12, 0.30, and 0.24 cm) was observed. These data indicate that lung health is an important factor that impacts carcass performance, particularly carcass weight muscling and yield grade outcomes. ItemA Qualitative Analysis of Service-Learning with Engineering Students(2021-12-16) Khin, Phyu Phyu; Meador, AudreyService-learning is an effective learning method to increase necessary skills of STEM students. Therefore, it is necessary to increase engineering service-learning courses (Maloney et al., 2013). This study investigated how service-learning affects STEM students and what skills they retained after participating in a service-learning course. This paper is a qualitative study of STEM students in service-learning using students' reflections and their responses to interviews on what they experienced in service-learning courses. The engineering students in this study supported elementary students in a makerspace, carrying out hands-on activities. This paper illustrates how STEM students in service-learning classes contribute to community implementing activities in makerspace. The findings support the conclusion that a service-learning course can positively affect students' development of 21st century skills (Naik et al., 2020). This study shows that STEM students benefited from service-learning by increasing 21st century skills in communication, creativity, and leadership. ItemA QUESTION OF CONTROL: VIOLENCE AND LATE MEDIEVAL SOCIETY DURING THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR(2021-12-03) Mulloy, William h; Brasington, BruceThe military communities operating within the scope of the Hundred Years War have received significant attention in recent years. Nevertheless, the study of violence—both state-sanctioned and otherwise—during the late-medieval period is still largely incomplete. Existing studies of statehood and the development of “proto-fiscal military states” during the fourteenth and fifteenth century are often limited, overwhelmingly in their focus upon exclusively royal-seigniorial powers and the economic limitations of European monarchs. Incorporating a wide range of ecclesiastical and common perspectives, alongside traditional examinations of royal centralization, allows one to expand studies of the monopolization of violence beyond royal-seigniorial power and into a broader context. My analyses of attempts to monopolize violence are centered on two facets of authority during the late-medieval period: ecclesiastical authorities and a combination of urban burghers and rural commons, known as popular authorities. I argue that royal-seigniorial power—despite its incredible influence—was not the only impetus for an effective monopolization of violence during the Hundred Years’ War, but rather one part of a complex and often contradicting myriad of competing political, economic, social, and religious motivations, propagated by all aspects of medieval society. Furthermore, I demonstrate how military communities operating independent of royal power—primarily, though not limited to, the routiers—served as a catalyst for extensive societal change and the evolution of professional military service. ItemA Sense of Nation: Salman Rushdie’s Synesthetic Portrayal of Postcolonial India in Midnight’s Children(2017-06-08) McCormick, Alexandria; Roos, BonnieThis paper analyzes how Salman Rushdie’s novel Midnight’s Children creates a synesthetic narrative that parallels a diverse nation’s attempt to find a national postcolonial identity, one that embraces cultural hybridity. With Rushdie’s use of synesthesia in mind, I analyze the novel with the five senses as the main guiding points. In Chapter One I consider the ways in which Rushdie uses smell and taste to stand in for or compliment spoken and written narratives (sound). Using research on olfactory emotion associations, I argue that food may remind Indians of their forgotten history where words cannot. Taking a more theoretical approach, Chapter Two examines the role of film in Midnight’s Children. Through his narrator Saleem Sinai and the novel form, Rushdie achieves the social realism for which New Indian cinema strove, as opposed to the passive viewership of popular Bombay melodramas. Just as synesthesia does not use a single sense, there is no homogenized Indian identity. I argue, as does Rushdie, India is its diversity (what he calls its “multitudes”). ItemA SPATIOTEMPORAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CROP PRODUCTION IN THE TEXAS HIGH PLAINS(2021-05-10) Naher, Aminun; Almas , LalThe Texas High Plains is one of the most prolific crop-producing areas in the United States. Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of this region. The agricultural industry in this area faces various challenges: environmental, economic, etc. Due to extreme weather conditions and climate change, crop production in the Texas High plains is facing a great threat. Crop production needs irrigation water. The primary source of irrigation water in this region is the Ogallala Aquifer. The saturated thickness of this aquifer is being depleted day by day, which is a big concern for the irrigation of crop production (Guerrero et al., 2019). A survey of the literature shows that few studies have investigated the cropping pattern for a specific crop based on production amount, but there is no study that broadly investigated the cropping pattern based on harvested acres for this region. So, it is important for policy purposes to investigate the spatiotemporal change of cropping patterns in this region. The main objective of this research is to visualize the historical change of cropping patterns in the Texas High Plains from the standpoint of geographical concentration and spatial autocorrelation. Historical county-level agricultural census data were collected from the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Agricultural Statistical Services (NASS) from 1978 to 2017. Exploratory data analysis (EDA) techniques were employed to examine the geographical concentration and the spatial dependence of crop production among nearby locations. Results of temporal changes indicate that harvested acres and the number of farms trend down through the study period. Maps were generated for each variable of interest which shows how much cropland acres have changed over time. The Gini coefficient and the quantiles of size distributions were computed for all variables of interest to analyze the change in geographical distribution. Total harvested cropland acres were nearly uniformly distributed across the 39 counties whereas irrigated harvested cropland acres were concentrated in a smaller number of counties, which is an indication of the change in geographical concentration in the Texas High Plains. Both total and irrigated harvested corn, cotton, sorghum grain, and wheat acreages were concentrated in a smaller number of counties over time while wheat production was mostly concentrated in the northern part of the region. The number of acres harvested for a specific crop relative to the number of total cropland acres show that most counties had more than 50 percent of its harvested cropland as cotton indicating that cotton is the prominent crop in the Texas High Plains. The percentage of acres of irrigated harvested cropland relative to total harvested cropland acreage has decreased over time. The Moran’s I test statistics for both irrigated and non-irrigated cropland areas suggest that there was spatial dependence among the neighboring counties in the production of crops in this region. In summary, there was a spatiotemporal change in cropping patterns in the Texas High Plains over the study period. ItemA Statistical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Mathematics Standards Reform in Texas(2021-02-12) Martin, Jacob; Lockwood, PamelaThe Texas Education Agency adopted a revised set of mathematics Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills in April 2012 in order to be more aligned with the Common Core State Standards. These standards were fully implemented for the 2014-2015 school year in Kindergarten through eighth-grade classrooms. This project aimed to determine if these new standards have made an impact on Texas students’ achievement in sixth and seventh grade mathematics. Using scores from the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) from the year prior to implementation (2014) and the most recent spring administration (2019) a linear regression analysis was conducted to determine how the scores have been impacted since the new standards have gone into effect. In this study, sixth and seventh grade STAAR scores served as the data set for a linear regression model. The data analysis shows that the state-wide average score has had a statistically significant increase after the new standards became the focus of mathematics education; additionally, there has been significant change in average scores for most of the examined subpopulations. ItemA STUDY OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS COLLABORATIVE PROJECT DEVELOPMENT SKILLS IN THE UNDERGRADUATE ENGINEERING CURRICULUM(2021-12-03) Varatharaj, Varatharaj; Chen, GeraldIn recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the use of technologies by educational institutions and students. Use of technologies for educational purpose have taken different dimensions to improve student learning and success. More specifically, engineering education focusses on methodologies that aid development of Industry4.0 skills in students. Engineering design and manufacturing industries are shifting more towards computational tools and are operating in a global sector. With this shift, students should learn to integrate their technical skills with computer skills and also learn to work in a collaborative environment. The use of software tools to aid teamwork and effectively carry out group projects are becoming integral part of engineering curriculum. Due to factors such as conflicting schedules, geographic separation, different learning styles, and different backgrounds, students have always struggled working on group projects. Establishing strong communication channels and thereby building strong teams to work on group projects has been a challenge for faculty members and instructors teaching those courses. Recent technologies have led to the invention of virtual communication that can be enabled through online collaboration tools. These online collaboration tools help students build a working model of working towards the successful completion of their projects. This thesis conducts a state of art analysis of how present day engineering education addresses the computational needs and incorporates Industry 4.0 skills. A conceptual study on the use and impact of computational tools and the use of online collaboration tools in the engineering education was studied. Students and Instructors from different engineering and computer science students were administered in the study and the data obtained from the research was analyzed. ItemA YEAR IN CRISIS: EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY AND COVID-19(2021-12-16) Spaulding, Zeina; Bigham, Gary; Garrison, Mark; Harper, IrmaPurpose: The current work seeks to answer the question, “Do principals perceive that COVID-19 has created or exacerbated inequalities in education?” Research Method: In this mixed methods research design, 83,941 K-12 public school principals in the United States were surveyed about crisis management plans, the impact of COVID-19 on these plans, and if inequalities in education were created or exacerbated by the pandemic. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and open-ended questions were analyzed using the constant comparative process of grounded theory. Results: Results from 1,106 responses indicated that COVID-19 exacerbated gaps in existing school inequalities specifically associated with the use and availability of technology, parental involvement, and basic needs lacking at home. Leaders in suburban, urban and rural school settings all agreed that COVID-19 had a disproportionate educational effect by race and/or ethnicity. However, leaders in urban and suburban more strongly agreed that there were disproportionate education effects. Principals of schools with greater African American populations more strongly agreed to the statement pertaining to the disproportionate impact of the pandemic than schools that had a smaller African American population. Conclusion: This study gives a voice to practicing school principals as they discuss how COVID-19 impacted or created inequities in schools. Technology, parental involvement, and the lack of basic needs of students were major themes; however, the socio-economic makeup of the school (Title I status), and the geographical location (suburban, urban, rural) did not impact the responses, while the racial/ethnic makeup (percent of African American students served) did. ItemAdapting to the Times: Exploring Social Media Use Decision-Making by Small Businesses(2019-09-02) Ellis, Hannah E; Brooks, Mary EThis thesis explores decision-making factors regarding social media use by small businesses in the Texas Panhandle. Limited studies have been conducted in the area of small business social media use decision-making. Common studies include large business social media efforts, however, limited research has been done to identify what factors drive small businesses to use social media. This research is important because the number of small businesses that are opting to use social media as their main marketing tool are increasing. Eight participants were selected to participate in this study using purposive sampling. Data included a pre-interview questionnaire and face-to-face in-depth interviews. Each in-depth conversation asked questions about factors that contribute to small business social media use decision-making. Using inductive analysis, themes were established and analyzed. Decision-making theory was used in this study and served as the framework for data analysis. The three themes found are: resources, branding, and return on investment. In addition, sub-themes were identified and assisted in developing dominate themes and resulted in a better understanding of what factors drive small businesses to use social media. This thesis explores decision-making factors regarding social media use by small businesses in the Texas Panhandle. Limited studies have been conducted in the area of small business social media use decision-making. Common studies include large business social media efforts, however, limited research has been done to identify what factors drive small businesses to use social media. This research is important because the number of small businesses that are opting to use social media as their main marketing tool are increasing. Eight participants were selected to participate in this study using purposive sampling. Data included a pre-interview questionnaire and face-to-face in-depth interviews. Each in-depth conversation asked questions about factors that contribute to small business social media use decision-making. Using inductive analysis, themes were established and analyzed. Decision-making theory was used in this study and served as the framework for data analysis. The three themes found are: resources, branding, and return on investment. In addition, sub-themes were identified and assisted in developing dominate themes and resulted in a better understanding of what factors drive small businesses to use social media. Keywords: social media, decision-making, small business, qualitative ItemAdministration of growth-promoting implants and days on feed affected allometric growth coefficients, fabrication yields, and economic returns of serially harvested beef steers(2020-10-05) Wesley, Kaitlyn Renee; Lawrence, Ty EThe objective of the first part of this study was to quantify differences in fabricated primals, subprimals, and carcass components of implanted and non-implanted steers. Steers (n = 80; initial BW 271 ± 99 kg) were paired and randomized to harvest date (d 0, 42, 84, 126, 168, 210, 252, 294, 336, 378). Individuals were randomized to treatment of CON (negative control) or REV (Revalor-XS; Merck Animal Health; Madison, NJ on d 0 and 190). One side of each animal was fabricated after a 48 h chill into primals, denuded subprimals, lean trim, trimmed fat, and bone; weights were recorded individually. Data were analyzed via mixed models. Implants increased cold side weights (CSW) 7.7%, bone yield 4.9%, and red meat yield 8.5% (P < 0.03), with no differences in fat yield (P = 0.78). Brisket and foreshank primals were increased 6.9% and 7.2%, respectively (P ≤ 0.02) from implanted cattle. Chuck primals from REV steers were 8.4% heavier, with similar trends in the arm roast, flat iron, petite tender, chuck eye roll, and mock tender (P ≤ 0.02). Rib primals of REV steers were 5.2% heavier, and the ribeye roll and rib blade meat showed an increase (P ≤ 0.04). Plate primals did not differ between treatments (P = 0.13). However the inside skirt, outside skirt, and outside skirt as % CSW were heavier (P ≤ 0.04) from REV steers. Loin primals from REV steers were 7.0% larger, along with the striploin, tenderloin, top sirloin butt, top sirloin butt cap, and bottom sirloin tri tip subprimals (P < 0.01). The flank primal of REV steers was 8.6% heavier, bottom sirloin flap and flank steak were also heavier (P ≤ 0.04), and the elephant ear tended to be heavier (P = 0.08). Round primals from REV steers were 6.3% heavier, and the top round, eye of round, bottom round, and knuckle were all heavier (P ≤ 0.03) than CON. Length of feeding period notably affected weights for all primals with exception of the chuck, loin, and several components of the sirloin. Fat as % CSW increased at 0.043% per day, whereas bone and red meat yield decreased at -0.013% and -0.023% per day, respectively. These data indicate implanted steers are more likely to have heavier side weights, higher bone yield, and increased red meat yields. Additionally, heavier primals and subprimals were observed in implanted steers. The objective of the second section of this study was to quantify allometric growth coefficients of non-carcass and carcass components of implanted or non-implanted Charolais × Angus steers in relation to empty body weight (EBW). Steers (n = 80; initial BW 271 ± 99 kg) were paired, randomized to harvest date (d 0-42-84-126-168-210-252-294-336-378), and individuals within pairs were randomized to CON (negative control) or REV (Revalor-XS on d 0 and 190) treatments. Weights (g) of non-carcass and carcass components were log transformed and consolidated to arithmetic means by treatment and harvest date. Growth coefficients were calculated using the allometric equation Y=bXa, which when log transformed is represented as Y=b+aX where Y= log(non-carcass or carcass component), X= log(EBW), a= log(slope), and b= log(intercept); the empty body grows at a rate of 1. Treatment outcomes were compared via independent t-test. Tendencies for faster growth of REV steers were detected in non-carcass components between treatments in the kidney (P = 0.06) and lungs/trachea (P = 0.09). Non-carcass components with lowest growth coefficients included small intestine (0.02), large intestine (0.12), and brain and spinal cord (0.13). However, kidney-pelvic-heart fat (2.01) accumulated at more than 2 times the rate of the empty body, whereas cod fat (1.42) and GIT fat (1.61) grew faster than the empty body. Growth coefficients were greater (P < 0.01) for REV in two carcass components (chuck eye roll, eye of round), whereas CON was greater (P < 0.01) in one component (flank steak). Although not different (P > 0.62), growth coefficients of carcass primals were numerically greater for REV steers with exception of the rib. All primals except the round (0.81) and foreshank (0.87) exhibited growth coefficients greater than the empty body (flank, 1.47; plate, 1.45; brisket, 1.18; rib, 1.18; loin, 1.04; and chuck, 1.03). Conversely, pectoral meat (0.19), bottom sirloin flap (0.56), heel meat (0.59), sirloin tip (0.66), and mock tender (0.69) subprimals all exhibited growth coefficients notably less than the empty body. Although not different, total lean was deposited more quickly in REV steers (0.95 vs 0.88; P = 0.45), whereas total fat (2.17 vs 1.98; P = 0.35) and total bone (0.92 vs 0.75; P = 0.29) were faster growing for CON steers. These data indicate total body fat exhibited the greatest growth coefficients compared to empty body. Whereas, there were minimal differences in growth coefficients of steers in regards to treatment. The objective of the third section of this study was to compare the profitability of finished steers produced and processed in either a non-hormone treated (NHTC) or traditional implant program and marketed at various end points. Steers (n=80; Charolais×Angus) were paired by genetic group, estimated finished body weight, frame score, and d to target BW. Pairs were randomized to harvest date (d 0-42-84-126-168-210-252-294-336-378) and individuals within pairs were randomized to CON (negative control) or REV (Revalor-XS on d 0, 190). Live, carcass, subprimal, non-carcass drop, and overhead prices were consolidated from USDA Mandatory Price Reports and industry contacts. Data were analyzed via mixed models. Initial cost varied (P < 0.01) between treatments as CON steers demanded premiums for NHTC and source verification. Feed costs were similar, and total production costs tended to be greater for CON (P = 0.09). Cattle marketed live or in the beef were of greater (P < 0.01) value for REV, as no premium was offered for NHTC steers. Quality grade adjustments tended to discount REV more heavily (P = 0.06), yield discounts tended to be greater for CON (P = 0.10), and weight based grid adjustments were unaffected by treatment (P = 0.53). Adjusted carcass value favored CON steers (P < 0.01) due to the NHTC premium. When sold on a live, in the beef, or grid basis, neither treatment yielded positive return. All variables with exception of initial cattle cost were different across DOF (P < 0.01). Non-carcass drop values were greater (P = 0.03) for REV. Boxed beef values were greater (P < 0.01) for CON. Processor net returns were calculated by difference in revenue (boxed beef plus non-carcass drop) and expense (overhead [-$190/carcass] plus procurement of the grid purchased carcass). Net return for processors was similar between treatments (P = 0.65). These data indicate implanted steers returned greater revenue when marketed on a live or in the beef basis, whereas NHTC steers returned more value when marketed on a grid basis, although neither treatment was profitable. Additionally, there was no difference between treatments in regards to the profitability of beef processors. ItemAGE DISTRIBUTION AND SURVIVAL OF COYOTES AND GRAY FOXES IN WESTERN TEXAS(2020-02-28) Kirk, Cassie Ann; Kazmaier, RichardThe coyote (Canis latrans) is one of the top predators in the state of Texas. They have been able to adapt to urbanization and continue to thrive in the wild. The coyote is also considered a top down keystone species. As such, coyote management can influence how other species are managed. Female coyotes can become sexually mature once they experience their first estrus cycle in the first year of life. Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) occur throughout Texas. Both male and female gray foxes can attain sexual maturity at an early age. Females on average breed for the first time at about 9-10 months of age. A better understanding of the age structure and survival rate of both species, we can better understand how many possible individuals we have that will be in prime breeding age, and how exploitation of the species may be effecting structure of the population. Given that both species are harvested in predator hunts and nuisance animal situations, I wanted to explore age structure and survival of coyotes and gray foxes in western Texas. I collected the lower canine tooth from 378 coyotes from the Panhandle and southwest areas of Texas. I also collected 288 lower canine teeth of gray fox samples from the Edwards Plateau and the Trans Pecos ecoregion. The teeth were processed for cementum annuli to access age for each individual. I then developed age distributions and used these distributions to calculate annual survival rates using a-structured regression. The overall survival of coyotes in Texas was 0.659. For females in total, annual survival was 0.709. Males annual survival was 0.686. The annual survival of all the gray foxes together is 0.650. Females annual survival was 0.647. Male’s annual survival was 0.643. The coyote and gray fox are adaptive species and can survive in different habitats and situations. The age structure in both species does suggest that exploitation is changing the age structure towards a younger dominant composition. However, these age structures also suggest that all of the populations I examined have not been over-harvested. Shifting populations to younger age classes can reduce age at maturity and increases litter sizes. Thus, the demographic strategy of these species apparently allows them to be resilient to current exploitation levels in this region.