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ItemA course of study for effectively teaching the junior high school advanced band in Midland, Texas(Canyon, Tex. : West Texas State University, 1978) Storie, John Randolph. ItemThe Modification, Development, and Characterization of an Aerosol Dispersion Wind Tunnel for the Use of Candidate Air Sampler Testing(2015-01-08) Welch, Matthew S.; DeOtte, Robert EBefore a candidate ambient air monitoring sensor can be used confidently in the field, it first must undergo characterization in a tightly controlled environment. To create those predictable testing conditions, the Aerosol Dispersion Wind Tunnel at the West Texas A&M University Environmental Quality Research and Technology Laboratory was physically modified to ensure sufficient mixing and fully developed flow at the testing section, then verified for acceptable velocity and aerosol concentration profile standards as specified by 40 CFR 53 Subpart D (USEPA, 1987). Using a particle image velocimetry system, the applicable cross section inside the test chamber was non-intrusively interrogated with planar sheets created by the Class IV Nd:YAG laser. By imaging the displacement of seed aerosols illuminated by the laser light sheet, nearly instantaneous velocity flow fields were calculated and time-averaged at 5 levels across the Y-axis of the test section, resulting in a high resolution velocity profile. These tests showed that the percent coefficient of variation (C(v%)) for the target velocities of 2 kilometers per hour and 8 kilometers per hour were 3.8 percent and 3.4 percent, respectively. To characterize the concentration profile within the applicable cross section, a vibrating orifice aerosol generator was used to introduce highly mono-disperse aerosols tagged with a fluorescent tracer into the wind tunnel at the same target speeds mentioned above. An adjustable isokinetic rake fitted with four isokinetic sampling cones was used to collect the aerosols of varying sizes upon glass fiber filters once isokinetic conditions had been established. The filters were then soaked in an aliquot, and a fluorometer was used to calculate the concentration of the fluorescent tag in each sample. From this the concentration profile within the tunnel was established. To be considered acceptably uniform, the C(v%) of the concentration values for each run could not exceed 10 percent. The aerosol concentration distributions within the test section proved more uniform when tested with middle range droplet sizes (7, 10, and 13 micrometers), while concentration values at the high and low ends of the droplet size range (3 and 17 micrometers) did not meet the 10% C(v%) standard. ItemDifferent Worlds, Different Perspectives(2015-01-08) Ogut, DilaraMy work blends together the two different cultures that have come to define me: Turkey and America. It aims to show the deep emotional challenges of being an international student and traveler in a country far from one’s homeland. I created each of my works by exploring my own experiences of different places, of meeting different people, and confronting different emotions during my visits. My exposure to difference and change during my education at West Texas A&M University helped me to understand my own identity better and to discover how art, perhaps better than any other form of communication, can cross between worlds and people. I chose to work on painting for my thesis because it provides an ideal way for me to express my ideas and experiences. Paintings can be abstract but also colorful. It confronts the viewer head-on with its dramatic presence in a gallery. I have undertaken several steps to create my paintings, such as photographing architectural places, making abstract compositions from the pictures that I took, doing sketches of my compositions, then drawing the actual composition on canvas, and, finally, painting my designs in color. Architectural abstraction became my primary means of expression during my education in Canyon, as it allowed me to express ideas conceptually instead of literally. Mixing different colors, using diverse tones, and playing with architectural shapes and edges on canvas are the main ways for me to convey the feelings and experiences of my life, but because the forms are abstract they reach beyond the personal and become relatable more broadly by my viewers. I love to use bright and dark colors together because it creates tension and also symbolizes the differences of my thoughts as they relate to various places and times in my life. I want my viewers to feel the vibration of diverse colors as they relate to their own personal thoughts and perspectives. There is a transition between two different cultures in my work. Seeking to find myself as an artist in a place far removed from my familiar habits, culture, and family is the key theme of my works. And I appreciate that I had this opportunity to discover myself and my art as a Turkish person living and working in America. ItemEFFECTS OF TREATING SORGHUM WET DISTILLER’S GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES WITH AN ENZYME COMPLEX ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE IN FINISHING BEEF STEERS(2015-01-08) Brauer, Casey Lyn; Richeson, JohnTwo experiments were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum wet distiller’s grains with solubles (SWDGS) with an enzyme complex, or enzyme complex-buffer combination on diet digestibility and feedlot performance. Experimental treatments were as follows; 1) untreated SWDGS (Control), 2) addition of an enzyme complex to SWDGS (Enzyme); and 3) addition of enzyme complex and limestone buffer to SWDGS (E+B). Sorghum WDGS, regardless of treatment, was included at 45% DM (DM basis) of a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet. The enzyme complex (Biozyme, Inc., St. Joseph, MI) was a proprietary blend containing both exogenous and endogenous hemicellulase, cellulase, and amylase enzymes, and was added at rate of 6 L/dry ton and 6.2 L/dry ton of SWDGS in Experiment 1 and 2; respectively. In the first experiment, six crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 577 ± 6.9 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of treating SWDGS with an enzyme complex or buffered enzyme complex on digestibility of nutrients. No differences (P > 0.28) in DMI, or digestibility of DM, OM, and starch between treatments were detected. Steers fed E+B treatment had higher (P = 0.07) ruminal pH than Control or Enzyme steers. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility tended (P = 0.15) to be greater for E+B fed steers. In a second experiment, 54 beef steers (initial BW = 370 ± 9 kg) were fed in a finishing study evaluating the same dietary treatments as the first experiment. No difference (P > 0.31) in DMI, ADG, or G:F was detected for the entire feeding period when Enzyme fed cattle were compared to Control. In contrast to the first experiment, DMI for the feeding period was lower (P = 0.03) for E+B fed cattle compared to Enzyme. There was no difference (P = 0.39) in ADG during the entire feeding period between Enzyme and E+B fed cattle; however, G:F was greater (P = 0.05) for E+B fed cattle compared to Enzyme. Standard carcass measurements did not differ (P > 0.43) between Enzyme and Control treatments. Most standard carcass measurements did not differ (P > 0.42) between E+B and Enzyme treatment, however, E+B cattle had less rib fat (P = 0.05) and had lower (P = 0.02) yield grades. Furthermore, the E+B fed cattle tended to have (P = 0.06) larger ribeye areas than Enzyme cattle. In conclusion, while treating SWDGS with a buffered enzyme complex containing primarily fibrolytic enzymes effects had positive on NDF digestibility, no corresponding improvements in cattle performance were detected. ItemEffects of Having a Departmental Academic Advisor on Perceived College Success(2015-01-08) Doyle, Carolyn Haver; Kieth, LanceThe purpose of this study was to gain information from seniors (90+ hours) enrolled at West Texas A&M University regarding perceived academic success and data related to their departmental academic advisor and advising experience. The study was used to determine if a correlation exists between when a student first meets with a departmental academic advisor upon entering college and their perceived college success or grade point average. Additional data was gathered to determine if students believe having a departmental academic advisor was beneficial to their perceived college success and determine how seniors at WTAMU define college success. The target population of this study was college seniors (90+ hours) enrolled at WTAMU during the Spring 2014 semester. The survey instrument was sent via e-mail to 2,303 possible participants. The instrument was designed to gather data regarding the students’ academic advising experience and personal perceived college success. The results of this survey concluded there is a negative correlation between when a student first meets with a departmental academic advisor and their perceived college success and GPA. Additionally, results concluded students “strongly agree” having a departmental academic advisor was beneficial to their perceived college success. It was determined seniors at WTAMU emphasize developing professional skills, maintaining an acceptable GPA, and the ability to be hired upon graduation when considering their perceived college success. However, students indicated participation in organizations, clubs or extra-curricular activities were iv not important to their perceived success. The results from this study can be used to make recommendations regarding the advising models used at WTAMU and enhance students’ experience at the university. ItemWHEAT, RICE AND CORN RESPONSE TO THE UREASE INHIBITOR N-(N-BUTYL THIOPHOSPHORIC TRIAMIDE) IN A DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE/PROPYLENE GLYCOL SOLUTION(2015-01-08) McClallen, Matthew; Parker, DavidSurface applied granular urea is a nitrogen fertilizer commonly used throughout the world. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the urea can be lost to the atmosphere through ammonia volatilization. Much research has been conducted in an attempt to reduce or stop this process and increase the efficiency of urea fertilizer. Urease inhibitors have been shown to be one possible method to reduce nitrogen volatilization. The chemical compound N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) has been shown to be an effective urease inhibitor. The purpose of this research was to test the effect that a new commercial NBPT containing product, N-Yield™, had on the growth of the common field crops including wheat, rice, and corn. Additionally, N-Yield was compared to the existing product, Agrotain Ultra©. Three studies were performed; a greenhouse study in Verde variety spring wheat, a greenhouse study of CL 111 variety rice, and a field study of dent corn. In the wheat study, three treatments, consisting of urea, urea with Agrotain (4.17 mL/kg), and urea with N-Yield (4.17 mL/kg) applied at 56, 84 and 112 kg nitrogen/ha, were compared to a no fertilizer treatment. The study was a CRD design, with three replications of each treatment. Above and below ground biomass were measured, and protein was analyzed using a Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIR). Significant differences were found in the mean above ground biomass for the Olton Clay Loam soil type (p=0.05). A significant difference between treatment means in protein content was found for both the Olton Clay Loam (p=0.08) and Amarillo Fine Sandy Loam soil types (p=0.001). In the rice study, three treatments consisting of urea, urea with Agrotain Ultra (4.17 mL/kg), and Urea with N-Yield™ (4.17 mL/kg) applied in either one or two applications of 22.41 kg nitrogen/ha, were compared to a no fertilizer treatment. The study was a CRD design, with four replications of each treatment. Above ground biomass and grain weight per plant was measured. Significant differences were observed between the treatment means of the grain weight (p=0.06) and for above ground biomass (p=0.09).The field corn study was set up in a RCBD design, using the prevailing south wind as a blocking factor. Three treatments and a no fertilizer control were used. Treatments consisted of urea, urea with Agrotain Ultra© (4.17 mL/kg), and urea with N-Yield™ (4.17 mg/kg) applied at a rate of 112 kg of nitrogen per hectare. There were three replications of each treatment for a total of 12 plots. Twenty plants were harvested from the middle of each plot and grain weight per ear was collected. Significant differences were found for the means of the grain weight per plant (p=0.008). ItemSpatial Ecology of Bobcats in a Texas High Plains Ecosystem(2015-01-08) Thurmond, Lena Marie; Matlack, Raymond SABSTRACT I studied bobcats on and around the 7,289 ha Pantex Plant in Carson County, Texas. This region of the Southern High Plains is primarily shortgrass prairie and agricultural lands with minor topographic relief and little natural structure or vertical cover. I captured 23 individual bobcats a total of 34 times. Eleven of these individuals were females (8 adults) and 12 of the individuals were males (10 adults). Adults (age > 1 year) were fitted with a GPS-GSM collar. Radiotelemetry efforts resulted in 17,478 viable locations for the 13 bobcats used in home range and habitat selection analyses. Female 100% minimum convex polygon (MCP) home ranges ranged from 5,496 - 20,406 ha. Male home ranges ranged from 6,969 - 40,748 ha. There was no statistical difference between seasonal home range sizes (P = 0.779). I used compositional analysis to evaluate habitat selection at 2 spatial scales. For second-order selection, use was defined as the habitat within 100% MCPs generated around each bobcat’s radiolocations. Availability was defined as habitat within the study area which was an MCP that included all bobcat radiolocations. For third-order selection, use was defined by the habitat composition at each bobcat’s radiolocations and availability was defined as the habitat within each bobcat’s 100% MCP. I also investigated both second and third-order habitat selection for proximity to defined habitat types by calculating buffer increments for each habitat. For second-order selection, use was defined as the buffer increments within each bobcat’s 100% MCP while the habitat available was defined as the buffer increments within the study area. For third-order, use was defined as the proportion of relocations within each buffer increment while the buffer increments within the 100% MCP served as the habitat available. Bobcats demonstrated high preference for anthropogenically-impacted areas in third-order selection and high preference for prairie dog towns in second-order selection. They exhibited avoidance of roads and railroads in both second and third-order selection. Preference for anthropogenic areas is likely a response to the lack of natural structure in the area. The selection preferences for artificial habitat features and relatively large home range sizes may indicate a lower quality habitat for bobcats. ItemThe Effect of Irrigation Scheduling and Manure Application on a Sweet Corn/Guar Intercrop(2015-01-16) Evalle, Alyssa Beth; Blaser, Brock; Rhoades, MartyMaximizing resource utilization in the semi-arid region of the Texas High Plains is a critical goal. When an input like drip irrigation is supplementing precipitation, intercropping is a cultural practice that can increase resource capture. A greenhouse study and a two year field study were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to determine the suitability of intercropping sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) with guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). The factorial design of the greenhouse experiment had three replications, three cropping treatments of sole sweet corn, sole guar and the intercrop of those two, and two watering treatments. The sole sweet corn produced 21% more green ear yield (GEY, unhusked ears) than the intercropped sweet corn. The lower watering treatment (LOW) produced twice as many ears than the higher watering treatment (HI), but the HI treatment produced 52% more sweet corn GEY than the LOW treatment. At the WTAMU Nance Ranch near Canyon, TX, the factorial design of the field experiment had four replications, three cropping treatments of sole sweet corn, sole guar and the intercrop of those two, two drip irrigation levels and two manure application rates of 22 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 67 Mg ha-1 2 yr-1. In 2014, sweet corn fresh ear yield (FEY, husked ears) was higher in the sole sweet corn (0.67 Mg ha-1) compared to the intercropped sweet corn (0.27 Mg ha-1). In 2013, the higher manure rate produced 62% higher total FEY than the lower manure rate, but no differences were observed between the manure application rates in the second year. In 2013, the highest weed dry matter (DM), 5.72 Mg ha-1, was measured in the sole guar treatment with 4.41 and 3.13 Mg ha-1 of weed DM measured from the intercrop and sole corn, respectively. As a result of this study, intercropping sweet corn and guar to maximize resource utilization, improve productivity and control weeds in the Texas High Plains is not recommended. ItemSalvation in Stewardship: Exploring the Rhetoric of Land Ethics(2015-07-10) Brooks, Dustin Matthew; Hunt, AlexUsing contemporary rhetorical theory of ethos as place, this paper explores the environmental rhetoric of Aldo Leopold, Wallace Stegner, and Annie Proulx, in an effort to locate effective rhetorical appeals to aid in bridging the gap that currently exists in the discourses of environmental politics and ethics. In an effort to locate a rhetorical common ground for the ethical consideration of the environment, this study presupposes that rhetoric shapes our view of responsibility, and that a land ethic shapes our view of what it means to be good stewards of the land. This paper hopes to situate a classic, yet renewed discourse of stewardship-based rhetoric that is ignited on a personal level through imaginative exercises toward a “place,” within which environmental discourse may be effectively reconciled. Within this place, all users of rhetoric are equal and dependent on the other to develop and implement real solutions toward the ethical treatment of our environment, its resources, and each other. ItemTHE NEUROCOGNITIVE EFFECTS OF VANADIUM IN YOUNG MALE RATS(2015-07-10) Connell, Amanda J; De Butte, Dr. MaxinePrevious research on vanadium has shown evidence of toxicity when animals and humans are exposed. Vanadium has negative physiological consequences when administered such as respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. However, in the area of diabetes research, vanadium has shown benefits in treatment, such as control of blood sugar, and reducing the need for insulin. Others have shown both negative and positive cognitive effects, which necessitates the need for more information about vanadium exposure. The current study investigated the effects of vanadium exposure (0.05 mg/1000 mg of food mash) on neurocognition in rats. Four weeks following administration of vanadium, rats were tested on the Open-Field, Object Recognition, and Morris Water Maze tasks. Vanadium exposure did not yield significant results on the Open Field test, or on the Object Recognition Task. However, vanadium exposure did improve spatial memory on day 2 of the Morris Water Maze, and there was a trend on days 3 and 4. This study indicates vanadium may have a positive impact on cognition, warranting further research to understand more about the benefits and consequences of vanadium administration. ItemBenchmarking for the Future(2015-07-10) Ceyanes, Robert Benjamin; Lockwood, PamThis paper examines the benchmarking system currently in place for education in the United States of America and suggests innovative ways to synthesize data mining and statistical methods currently used by marketers and businesses to vastly improve educator’s ability to identify struggling students. This research suggest that educators should and can identify students in danger of failing the mandatory state assessments much earlier and with greater accuracy using the new methods available. Although the research makes no attempt to recommend strategies for interventions, it makes enormous leaps in enlightening educators in methods for pinpointing who needs interventions. The exploration suggests that the current system can be improved, and students can be given the assistance needed prior to state-wide examinations. ItemAnalysis of Drought Tolerant Corn Production in the Southern High Plains(2015-07-10) Mounce, Ryan B.; Blaser, Brock C.; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A.Corn (Zea mays L.) is an important crop in the Texas High Plains (THP). Chapter 1 of this study discusses why corn is such an important commodity for the THP as well as the challenges that farmers face when trying to produce a successful and profitable crop. These challenges include many stressors, both biotic and abiotic. Chapter 2 serves as a review of some of the stressors that corn producers face in the area, and reports production challenges that were observed in a two-year experiment, 2013-2014, conducted at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, TX. Corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea), spider mites (Tetranychus urticea), grasshoppers (Caelifera) and rust (Puccinia sorghi) were among the biotic stressors noted in the experiment. Abiotic stresses included heat stress, water stress, drought stress and severe weather events. A comparison of two corn hybrids is presented in Chapter 3. A drought tolerant and a conventional hybrid were planted in 2013 and 2014 at three different irrigation treatment levels (100%, 75% and 50%). The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a drought tolerant hybrid by comparing yields, crop water use (ETc), water use efficiency (WUE), and harvest index (HI), with a common hybrid. Grain yields for the drought tolerant hybrid were similar to the conventional hybrid for all irrigation treatment levels, while ETc was always numerically less. However, more research needs to be conducted on these drought tolerant hybrids in more extreme drought conditions. ItemGalois Theory: A Topological and Group Theoretic Construction(2015-07-10) Roper, Taylor Scott; Combs, Randel LThe definition of the Galois group of any field extension F/K is stated, and the fundamental theorem of Galois theory for algebraic Galois field extensions is proven. Further uncovering the structure of field extensions via their Galois groups, a definiton of the the Krull topology is given that makes the Galois group a topological group that is in fact a profinite group. Topological properties of Galois groups are studied along with the connections these properties have with the corresponding field extensions. A topological characterization of Galois groups of algebraic Galois extensions is then given. The group structure of Galois groups is analyzed via their dependence on and similarities to the structure of finite groups. Most of the main theorems are followed by examples where the theorem is applied to a specific case. The thesis is concluded with a brief discussion of analog Galois theories in other mathematical disciplines. ItemTHE WOMEN IN HARRY POTTER’S WORLD: A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE(2015-07-10) Greif, Julia E; Hanson, TrudyMy analysis uses a feminist perspective to examine the gender roles portrayed in Harry Potter. In this analysis, I place an emphasis on two of the female characters in the book series, Hermione Granger and Minerva McGonagall or Professor McGonagall. Although Professor McGonagall and Hermione are fantasy creatures of the wizarding world, their characters represent so much more than just women of the book series. Both are fighters, pioneers, historians, liberators, and heroes. ItemSorry, Not Sorry: Image Reparation in the NFL(2015-07-10) Harker, Jennifer; Osei-Hwere, EnyonamThis thesis is a rhetorical analysis of current trends in image reparation strategies used by the National Football League (NFL) in an effort to restore goodwill with its stakeholders following perceived transgressions. The 2014/2015 NFL season is discussed and analyzed using the lens of Image Reparation Theory. This research also set out to discover whether or not the NFL’s image repair strategies were rhetorically successful. Findings include the application of three general strategies; corrective action, evasion of responsibility, and reduce offensiveness; and the five sub-strategies of defeasibility, minimization, differentiation, attack the accuser, and bolstering. The implications of this research concludes that in sports image repair, use of the contradictory strategies of corrective action with defeasibility, or corrective action used with differentiation or minimization, is not universally effective. Bolstering likely is the key strategy to apply as it is consistently successful across stakeholders. The importance of strategic and proactive organizational communication cannot be overstated, consistency in player discipline is desperately needed in the NFL, and finally, dissociation of players who have engaged in an extreme transgression is suggested. ItemPopulation Dynamics of Wheat Curl Mite with Deficit Irrigation and Cultivar Mixtures(2015-07-10) Simmons, Angela R; Rush, Charles M; Pendleton, Bonnie BABSTRACT Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is one of the major limiting factors in production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. In addition to its direct effect on yield, the virus significantly reduces water-use efficiency, which is of concern in semi-arid regions such as the Texas Panhandle where irrigation water is limited. Severity of wheat streak has been observed to increase during years of severe drought, possibly because of greater abundance of mites. Other mite species also have been reported to increase in numbers on drought-stressed plants. In the Texas Panhandle, much of the wheat crop is irrigated, but because of depletion of the water in the Ogallala Aquifer, less than the full amount of water required for production of crops often is applied. Over time wheat lines have been bred to tolerate drought conditions in areas with scarce rainfall. However, little is known of the optimal reproductive capability of wheat curl mite under deficit irrigation in a wheat field and its impact related to disease severity. Therefore, field studies were done using two wheat cultivars, Karl 92 (susceptible) and TAM 112 (tolerant), at three amounts of irrigation (33, 67, and 100% of potential evapotranspiration rate) at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Station, at Bushland, TX, in 2013 and 2014. Numbers of mites, severity of disease and soil moisture content were evaluated for each cultivar and amount of irrigation water applied. Overall, mite numbers increased as irrigation amounts decreased (R² = 0.5077, P = 0.0009). Also, there was a slight but significant positive correlation between severity of disease and soil moisture (R² = 0.3307, P = 0.0125). Studies in a greenhouse assessed abundance of wheat curl mite and incidence of wheat streak mosaic. More wheat curl mites were found in the 33 and 67% water-replacement treatments for the TAM 112 cultivar. These results showed that under deficit irrigation, the wheat curl mites increased in abundance, which in turn resulted in increased disease incidence and reduced water use-efficiency, leaving unused water in the soil. Irrigation of mite-infested wheat can result in wasted water in regions where water is limited. In a second study, mixtures of TAM 112 and TAM 111 were evaluated for their impact on incidence of WSM and WCM. Initially bred for tolerance to drought, TAM 112 has shown resistance to wheat curl mite and tolerance to Wheat streak mosaic virus under drought conditions in the field. Because TAM 112 is the only drought-tolerant cultivar in the Great Plains region, with recognized resistance to WCM and WSMV, new methods of control are essential. Use of wheat mixtures with cultivars TAM 112 for resistance to WCM and TAM 111 for resistance to rust, offers promise to maximize yields in the presence of both the mite and leaf rust. Therefore, five mixtures of TAM 111 (susceptible) and TAM 112 (tolerant) wheat (25% TAM 112: 75% TAM 111; 50% TAM 112 and TAM 111; 75% TAM 112: 25% TAM 111; 100% TAM 111; and 100% TAM 112) were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 in fields at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Station, Bushland, TX, for their impact on the spread of WCM and incidence of disease. Number of mites and incidence of disease were evaluated among cultivar mixtures in the field. Numbers of WCM increased over time in response to warmer spring temperatures (P < 0.0001), with a significant decrease in WCM at distances farther from the point of infestation (P < 0.0001). Results from greenhouse studies, in conjunction with the field studies also revealed a significant increase in mite numbers over time as well (P < 0.0001). The number of mites over distance and time were significantly less on 100% TAM 112, with a noticeable trend in increasing numbers of mites within decreasing percentages of this resistant variety. These results showed that TAM 112 can limit the spread of wheat curl mite throughout the field and has potential to do so in a cultivar mixture. ItemHERPETOFAUNAL RESPONSES TO FIRE AND VARIATION IN AMPHIBIAN CALL INTENSITY IN AN EASTERN TEXAS POST OAK SAVANNAH LANDSCAPE(2015-07-10) Tubbs, Ashley C; Kazmaier, RichardHerpetofauna are critical links in the functioning of ecosystems. Despite this, herpetofauna are declining worldwide and more research is necessary to their declines and evaluate how various land management practices impact populations. Fire is a natural part of the savannahs of eastern Texas, but fire suppression has significantly altered landscapes in this region. As a result, controlled burning is being increasingly implemented in many areas to help restore the natural community. My goal was to determine how 3 burning treatments influenced the herpetofaunal community of Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area in eastern Texas. I sampled herpetofauna with pitfall traps in summer of 2013 and both pitfall and funnel traps in summer of 2014. I captured 80 individuals of 14 species in 2013 and 109 individuals of 19 species in 2014. I then compared diversity, evenness, richness, and abundance using ANOVA with month and treatment as main effects, and found no differences among the various community characteristics across the burning treatments or months. At present, my data provides no evidence that the burning regime used by Gus Engeling WMA effects the herpetofaunal community, but further monitoring will be needed to evaluate longer term trends. I also used frog call surveys to monitor amphibians across the site. Frog call surveys are being used widely to monitor amphibian populations and their declines. I was interested in determining when during the year, as well as when throughout each night, different species call at Gus Engeling WMA in eastern Texas. For this study, I put out 7 audio recorders in various habitat types and recorded from 23 February 2013 until 14 July 2013, with each recorder recording the first 5 minutes of every half hour from 18:00 – 07:00. Species richness was highest from the first week of April until the last week of May, and from 19:00 until 05:00 each night. With these data, I can recommend recording from late March until early June while also recording less time during each night than I did without losing detection of any species. ItemPOST-MORTEM MECHANICAL INJECTION OF LOW QUALITY BEEF LOINS WITH PORK BACK FAT IMPROVES PALATABILITY ATTRIBUTES(2015-12-04) Reed, DeMetris; Lawrence, TyPalatability attributes of beef striploin steaks mechanically enhanced with pork fat were evaluated. Beef striploins were collected from USDA Standard steer carcasses. Loins were longitudinally cut into halves (lateral or medial) and assigned randomly to pork fat injection (PFI) or non-injected control (CON). Loin halves assigned to PFI were enhanced with cooked (>71°C) pork fat using a multi-needle injector. Steaks were analyzed via Warner-Bratzler shear force, trained and consumer sensory panels, and proximate analysis (cooked and uncooked). Shear force values for PFI steaks were lower (P<0.01) than CON steaks (2.50 vs. 4.44 kg, respectively). Trained panelists detected (P=0.02) an off-flavor for PFI steaks but were unable to discern other attribute differences. Consumer panelists denoted (P=0.05) improved tenderness and overall preference (P=0.01) for the PFI treatment. Cooked PFI steaks had less (P<0.01) moisture (-1.0%) and more (P<0.01) fat (+1.3%) than CON steaks; protein did not differ (P=0.14). This processing method deserves further investigation for new product development. ItemBIOMETRIC GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF CALF-FED HOLSTEIN STEERS FED IN CONFINEMENT(2015-12-04) Reed, Jacob a; Lawrence , Ty EThe objective of this research was to determine the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on movement behavior of calf-fed Holstein steers fed in confinement as well as understand the optimal slaughter end point for a calf-fed Holstein by use of biometric measurements. Calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 135) were randomized to 11 pre-assigned slaughter groups (254, 282, 310, 338, 366, 394, 422, 450, 478, 506, and 534 days on feed) consisting of 10 steers per group. Steers were assigned to one of three pens each containing a feed behavior and disappearance system (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB Canada) which had four feed nodes per pen. A fourth terminal pen was divided in half with one side containing five steers fed a ration supplemented with ZH and the other half containing five steers fed a control ration without ZH supplementation. Steers placed in the fourth terminal pen were fed in 28 d feeding periods; d 1 to 5 included no ZH supplementation, d 6 to 25 included ZH (8.33 mg/kg dietary DM) supplementation, and steers were withdrawn from ZH during d 26 to 28. Objective movement behavior of each animal was monitored during the 28 d prior to harvest using an accelerometer (IceQube, IceRobotics, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK) attached to the left hind leg of each animal. The accelerometer recorded standing time (min), lying time (min), number of steps taken, and number of times lying down (lying bouts). These variables were accumulated in 15 min intervals. Data use began at 1200 h on d 1 to remove variation from movement caused by handling the animals and ended on d 28 at 2400 h. Biometric measurements were takenon the same group of calf-fed Holsteins to allow for understanding of the maximal slaughter point based on hip height. Hip-height was measured every 28 d from 226 to 422 days on feed. Hip-height was a dependent variable modeled via linear regression procedures, utilizing days of age and live weight as independent variables. Additionally, logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of a steer exceeding a hip-height of 147.32 cm (58 inches) from independent variables of days of age and live weight. No ZH x slaughter group interaction (P > 0.05) was detected for any variable. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed between ZH supplementation treatment groups in the quantity of minutes spent standing (0 d ZH = 15,831; 20 d ZH = 15,470), minutes spent lying (0 d ZH = 23,769; 20 d ZH = 24,130), or number of steps taken per 28 d period (0 d ZH = 46,118; 20 d ZH = 46,914). The number of lying bouts tended to be different (P = 0.09) between treatment groups; cattle supplemented ZH exhibited 302 lying bouts whereas those not supplemented ZH had 326 bouts over the 28 d period. There was no day of period x ZH interaction (P = 0.44) for any of the behavior outcome variables. There was a difference (P < 0.05) between treatments in the amount of time spent standing (0d ZH = 571; 20d ZH = 541 min) and lying (0d ZH = 869; 20d ZH = 883 min) within day of a 28 d period. A difference (P < 0.05) occurred between treatments in numbers of lying bouts (0d ZH = 11.3; 20 ZH = 10.8) within day over the 28 d period. Interactions (P < 0.01) were observed for time x treatment for each one of the outcome variables when expressed in 15 min intervals during a 24 h period. The results indicated similar objective movement outcomes for calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented ZH when compared to those not supplemented ZH. The linear relationship of live weight to hip height had an R2 value of 0.7116, and on average the calf-fed Holstein steers grew 1.0 cm per 16.9 kg of live weight gain during the finishing phase. The 10, 50, and 90% probability of a steer exceeding 147.32 cm (58 inches) of hip height was achieved at 563, 653, and 743 kg of live weight, respectively. The linear relationship of days of age to hip height had an R2 value of 0.6691, and the calf-fed Holstein steers grew 1.0 cm for each 10.7 days of age during the finishing phase. The 10, 50, and 90% probability of a steer exceeding 147.32 cm (58 inches) of hip height was achieved at 408, 459, and 510 days of age, respectively ItemSpeak Up!: A Quantitative Exploration of the Long-term Impacts of Competitive Forensics(2015-12-04) Lawton, Michael Christopher; Hanson, TrudyAristotle wrote about three genres of speaking: deliberative, forensic, and epideictic. Drawing on the teaching of Aristotle, the field of forensics was born, focusing on public speaking and debate as competitive events. Forensics is an over-century old activity that has grown with education in mind. This study utilizes quantitative research methods to analyze the long-term impacts of forensics participation. Former competitors completed a total of 381 surveys, answering a range of questions set to gauge the viability of the skills gained through forensics. The research question for this study seeks to identify what the long-term impacts of forensics, if any. The results supported the research question and all three hypotheses: forensics offers an immense amount potentially positive benefits that can impact a student far beyond their competitive eligibility. With ten skills presented in the Likert-type questions, between 83.5%-98.9% of respondents agreed that forensics has benefitted a specific skill set. Only two of these categories, networking and organization, rated below 94% agreement. An independent samples t-test exposed that women were more likely to perceive positive impacts on organization than men. A one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in perceived research abilities between those who competed in high school and college, as compared to high school-only competitors. The evidence of the positive long-term impacts of forensics participation on career success offers a strong justification for the continuation of forensics programs.