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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Boyd, Stephanie R; Revett, Jon
    My work investigates the comfort and dysfunction as well as the fragility and strength of familial relationships. Traditionally, a stable home has a framework. There are bedtimes, family meals, and a time for help with your homework. These are the flawless expectations that society place onto families. My work becomes a metaphorical investigation of expectations and realities of family life through the fusion of print and ceramic processes. I begin by making images using traditional printmaking techniques that explore behavior and gender roles within the family unit. On paper, these prints are protected, clean, much like the ideal family dynamic. I then challenge this idea by printing these images on paper clay, which add strength to them, much like a parent hopes to do with their children. On paper clay, they can hold up to the pressure of the slab roller and the etching press. However, the thinner the clay gets, the more fragile it becomes, just as if a child is put under intense pressure. The thinness of the clay also makes it translucent, and when backlit, the flaws in my work are no longer able to hide. The texture from the printing on the clay is like the personal qualities of the mark or “imprints” that people leave on their families. These marks are not perfect, and all of these flaws represent the unique and differences of each individual that make up a family unit. By allowing the flaws to be visible, I relinquish control and accept that even in chaos they are impeccable.
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    (2022-08-01T07:00:00.000Z) Tilton, Travis Joel; Lucherk, Loni; Lucherk, Loni; Tennant, Travis; Lawrence, Ty E
    Salmonella is a major cause of food borne illness in the U.S. as this naturally occurring bacteria causing upwards of 1.35 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Cattle may harbor Salmonella in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) as well as in their lymph nodes and other areas of the animal body. This creates a challenge because lymph nodes are impervious to post-harvest pathogen interventions, thus leading to potential contamination in ground beef production. Direct-fed microbials are a possible pre-harvest intervention to reduce the burden of Salmonella. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of the direct-fed microbial 10-G upon cattle and carcass performance, as well as prevalence and enumeration of Salmonella in feces and lymph nodes. Fed beef heifers (n = 1,400; 343.3 ± 36.2 kg) were blocked by day of arrival and randomly allocated to one of two treatments (0 or 2g/animal/d; CON and 10-G, respectively) with ten pens per treatment. Pen served as the experimental unit. Cattle fed 10-G were provided 1 billion CFUs per animal per day of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Recto-anal mucosal swab samples (RAMS) and subiliac lymph nodes (SLN) were collected longitudinally at harvest from twenty-four heifers per pen (n = 476). Quantification of RAMS and SLN’s were completed via BAX® Salmonella PCR assay following the SalQuant™ approach. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS; pen served as the experimental unit and block and harvest date were random effects. Heifers fed 10-G did not differ in dry matter intake (P = 0.78), final body weight (P = 0.52), average daily gain (P = 0.49), gain to feed (P = 0.74), hot carcass weight (P = 0.56), dressed carcass yield (P = 0.83), 12th rib fat depth (P = 0.23), ribeye area (P = 0.62), calculated empty body fat (P = 0.35), or marbling score (P = 0.83). Distributions of liver scores (P > 0.14), yield grade (P > 0.22), and quality grade (P > 0.15) were not different between treatments. We detected a tendency for fewer inflated lungs at harvest of cattle fed 10-G (P = 0.10; 10-G 0.2%, CON 1.0%); other lung outcomes did not differ (P > 0.12). Salmonella prevalence of RAMS samples did not differ (P = 0.76; 10-G 93.7%, CON 93.3%) nor did SLN (P = 0.12; 10-G 22.7%, CON 12.2%). Salmonella log of CFU/g of RAMS and SLN did not differ between treatments at harvest (P = 0.49; 10-G 3.78, CON 3.37; P = 0.12; 10-G 0.35, CON 0.08), respectively. These results do not demonstrate any improvement live animal performance, carcass characteristics or reduction in Salmonella for heifers fed 10-G.
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    Equitable Policies in Higher Education: Campus Climate and Retention
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Jenkins, Jonathan Orion; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Dr. Minseok Yang; Dr. Janet Hindman
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the connection between campus climate and retention among diverse student populations within a collegiate environment. Research Method: This study utilized a qualitative descriptive survey approach with a convenience sample of 93 post-baccalaureate and graduate level students and four academic administrators. Nominal and ordinal survey responses were submitted anonymously through the use of an online platform. Descriptive statistics were utilized to concentrate on the distribution and frequencies of participant responses. IRB approval was obtained through West Texas A&M University. Findings: When asked to evaluate the priority level of concern regarding campus climate from collegiate administrators, student participants perceived the priority level as moderate to high for Latino/Hispanic population (68%), moderate to high for African American (63%), and moderate to high for all students of diversity (67%). In assessing whether or not the campus climate can directly impact the decision-making process of diverse students to continue with their collegiate studies, 77% of student participants responded that it was a contributing factor. In evaluating administrator participant responses, 100% of respondents strongly agreed that campus climate can be impactful in the decision process for students in terms of retention. Conclusion: It is essential for collegiate administrators to consider policies which explicitly address the campus climate for diverse student populations. Campus climate directly impacts retention for diverse student populations. If the campus climate is perceived to be negative or unwelcoming, diverse student populations are more likely to leave campus prematurely. Broad-minded, social justice policies in academia will 17 increase retention, alleviate impediments for success, and increase the graduation rate for diverse student populations.
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    Community College Faculty Roles in Shared Governance
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Whitman, Paula K; Harper, Irma; Harper, Irma; Hindman, Janet; Garrison, Mark
    Purpose: The central purpose of this study was to examine the level of faculty authority in institutional decision making in practice at community colleges in Texas. Additionally, levels of faculty authority in community colleges were compared to that of faculty in universities in the United States. Finally, levels of faculty authority were examined for patterns relating to institutional characteristics. Research Method: This quantitative study extended the 2021 American Association of University Professors Shared G overnance survey to include community colleges in Texas using the same survey instrument. Percentages of responses by decision making areas were calculated for comparison. Observation Oriented Modeling was used to identify patterns relating to faculty auth ority in universities or community college institutional characteristics. Findings: The findings indicated that the highest levels of faculty authority in the academic areas related to grade assignments, teaching assignments, and faculty searches. The lowe st levels of faculty authority were discovered in areas related to provost selection, building, budgets, salary policies, and undergraduate admissions policies. Levels of faculty authority in community colleges were found to be most similar to university f aculty in administrative decisions overall and the most divergent in academic decision making. Findings indicated a moderate relationship between institutional size and faculty authority, with smaller community colleges reporting higher levels of faculty a uthority than larger schools. Conclusion: Results of this study provide a relative benchmark for statewide faculty authority that is beneficial for individual college comparison and future studies.
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    Rural and Suburban Superintendent Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes in Relation to English Learner Students: An Equity-Focused Exploration
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Vega, Rebecca; Bigham, Gary; Bigham, Gary; Garrison, Mark; Hindman, Janet
    This scholarly delivery is a combination of two articles that both highlight social justice leadership, decision-making of superintendents and the impacts this type of leadership has on the English Learner population. The first scholarly deliverable is a case study titled “Standing Up for What's Right: A New Superintendent Challenges Mindsets.” The case study examines a complex set of problems for a new superintendent. The problems include dealing with concerns from teachers and parents about the equitable treatment of students in the district. The second scholarly deliverable is an empirical research article titled “Rural and Suburban Superintendent Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes in Relation to English Learner Students: A Qualitative, Equity-Focused Exploration.” The study explores four Texas superintendents and what influences their decision-making on issues of equity with English Learner students.
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    Nomadic Navigations
    (2022-12-01T07:00:00.000Z) Tippit, Marcia; Revett, Jonathan D.; Von Lintel, Amy; Gamble, Misty,; Lemnitzer, Anna
    ABSTRACT My thesis explores the idea that people are spiritual beings having a human experience rather than human beings having a spiritual experience. To convey this idea in visual form, I create abstract paintings and drawings, primarily in the style of Abstract Expressionism. Each of my works utilizes a four-part system of development that consists of a) “universe”, b) “forms”, c) “gestural moments”, and d) “time-threads,” all of which relate to varied aspects of what it means to be human, both individually and collectively as a species. My concepts stem from the writings of Teilhard de Chardin and Joseph Campbell, while my artistic influences include Cave Art, Expressionists, and the Transcendental Painters. My goal is to share my visions and create relevant cross-cultural connections through the nonverbal language of abstract visual art. I also address concepts of time and space in realms beyond the earth plane. I engage with the works authentically as I create them, and then release them after completion, allowing the experience to then belong to the viewer. I’m not trying to convince or persuade my audience into believing or feeling exactly what I do, but rather I am simply sharing my journey with fellow travelers. Though we may experience different circumstances and perceive them differently, we are still united by our spiritual experience as human beings moving through life. My paintings and drawings express the sharing of this common bond.
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    Perceptions and Priorities: The marketing to an recruiting of rural prospects by rural serving universities in West Texas and New Mexico
    (2022-12-01T07:00:00.000Z) Stringer, Gregory Vonn; Hindman, Janet; Hindman, Janet; Minseok Yang; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.
    In recent years, the use of market segmentation in higher education recruiting has garnered considerable research. Enrollment data in the form of response rates and yield rates provide vital strategic recruitment information to higher education institutions (HEI) assisting in the modification and development of marketing plans. There are two purposes to this study. The first purpose is to gain an understanding of how admission professionals perceive known barriers to rural student enrollment. While previous research has focused on identifying barriers to enrollment, this study fills a gap in the literature by examining the ways in which barriers shape the perceptions of admission professionals. The second purpose is to examine how universities present content on webpages relative to these same barriers. In essence, this study explores the connection between recruitment interactions and market segmentation by examining the commonly held perceptions of admission professionals and HEI website information in relation to the recruitment of rural student populations. Using both survey and descriptive content analysis, the study examines market segmentation and correlations in recruiter perceptions in the rural context. This study finds that while admission professionals perceive some barriers to higher education enrollment affecting rural students, the perceptions are inconsistent and often do not align with contemporary research. In addition, resources, information, and imagery presented on higher education websites do not reflect a recognition of the unique barriers to enrollment facing rural students. These findings have policy implications showing the need for strategic enrollment planning.
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    The Effect Financial Incentives, Mentor Programs, and Grow Your Programs Have on Teacher Retention in Texas Rural School Districts
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Sims, Callie; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Bigham, Gary; Garrison, Mark
    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify effective teacher retention strategies in rural school districts in Texas. The study collected superintendents' use of three categories of commonly employed retention strategies and their effectiveness ratings for reducing teacher turnover. Research Methods: This quantitative study employed a retrospective, exploratory design to describe trends and test four hypotheses linking data from a researcher-constructed survey about district retention strategy use and perceived effectiveness to Texas Education Agency (TEA) data on teacher turnover rates. Data on economic disadvantage students, teacher salaries, and English Language Learner populations were also examined mediating the effects of retention initiatives. Results: Rural school district superintendents who participated in the survey indicated the retention strategies implemented were effective. Overall research indicated financial incentives were somewhat effective for teacher retention. Implications: None of the most commonly used strategies had clear and consistent effects on teacher retention. While financial incentives had the most effect of the three broad categories of programs studied, the effects mentor programs and Grow Your Own initiatives were mediated by declines in the percent of economic disadvantaged and English Language Learner students.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Saavedra, Zechariah Joren; Sissom, David; Sissom, David; Johnson, James B.; Matlack, Raymond S
    A taxonomic survey of the arachnid fauna was conducted at the Yoakum Dunes Wildlife Management Area (WMA) Cochran County, Texas during the years of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Yoakum Dunes WMA was established by Texas Parks & Wildlife Department in 2014. No surveys of its invertebrate fauna have been undertaken at Yoakum Dunes to date. Arachnids were sampled using a combination of pitfall trapping, sweep netting, and general collecting. Eight pitfall arrays were deployed, four in mesquite habitat and four in shinnery oak habitat and were used to capture arachnids for one-week periods. Eight sweep samples and eight general collecting samples were also gathered during each sampling period. Members of five arachnid orders were captured at the site: spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), sun spiders (Solifugae), pseudoscorpions (Pseudoscorpiones) and mites (Acari). A total of 31 families, 68 genera, and 100 species of arachnids were identified, broken down as follows: Acari, four families, eight genera (species were not identified); Araneae, 20 families, 53 genera, and 85 species; Scorpiones: two families, three genera, and four species; Pseudoscorpiones: two families and two genera; Solifugae: one family, two genera, and two species. All identified species of non-scorpion arachnids collected represent new records for Cochran County. Most notably, three species of spiders, Agyneta fratrella (Chamberlin, 1919; Linyphiidae), Piabuna pallida (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935; Phrurolithidae), and Allocosa morelosiana (Gertsch & Davis 1940; Lycosidae) were documented in Texas for the first time.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Nickerson, Amanda Scott; Harper, Irma; Harper, Irma; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Yang, Minseok
    Abstract Purpose: This qualitative single case study aimed to explore the barriers students indicated as contributing to their lack of transfer. In addition, this study acknowledged the suggestions that students who chose not to transfer had to improve the transfer process. Research Method: In this qualitative, single case study, interviews were conducted with 12 community college students who had indicated an interest in transferring and had opted into their community college and University partnership at an urban district in Texas. Findings: The theme of support encompassed both barriers to transfer and suggestions to improve the transfer process. With respect to barriers to transfer, the themes of financial issues, support, and change study focus area emerged. Suggestions from students to improve the transfer process included the two themes of support and content with the program. Conclusion: The main barriers for students in successfully transferring to a university from a community college are financial issues and the lack of support. The results also strengthen the conceptual framework of transfer student capital by supporting themes in transfer barriers, such as students who lacked the advising or capital to understand the transfer process.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Nava, Raul; Harper, Irma; Bigham, Gary; Minseok Yang
    Abstract Purpose: The principal and assistant principals (APs) roles are high-profile positions with high expectations from the community they serve. Increasingly placed under scrutiny, principals and APs are under extreme pressure. The purpose of this study is to explore how decision-making can affect an administrators’ stress level. Research Method: This study used a qualitative design. The phenomena this study addressed was to explore the decision-making process of principals and APs and the effect this process has on stress levels. Findings: Several themes emerged from these research questions. The first theme identified was communication. Principals and APs voiced the importance of continuous communication. Collaboration was another theme that surfaced throughout the research. It was an important theme that allowed for all stakeholders to be involved with the purpose of allowing/hearing their input. Problem-solving was the third theme that appeared during the second research question. Stress relief was the fourth theme identified in this study. Conclusion: Decision-making can result in conflict, and that conflict can create high levels of stress for the administrators. Principals and APs should have decision-making processes or systems in place to help minimize conflict. Accepting that conflict and stress are inevitable, no matter how structured the decision-making process is, it is important for school administrators to find ways to release their stress.
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    Special Education Enrollment and Graduation Trends in Texas
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Minshew, Logan Russell; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Bigham, Gary; Garrison, Mark
    The focus of this scholarly delivery and research addresses improving academic outcomes for underrepresented populations. The first scholarly deliverable is a case study to facilitate discussion about collaborative social justice leadership. The article is titled “Social Justice Leadership in Schools” and is intended as a teaching tool for graduate students pursuing master’s or doctoral degrees in education. The case examines the challenges school leaders face while attempting to introduce solutions to improve student outcomes. The second scholarly deliverable is an empirical research article titled “Special Education Enrollment and Graduation Trends in Texas.” The article examines 17 years of student enrollment and graduation data from 1,020 Texas public school districts and focuses on trends for students who qualify for special education services.
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    Leadership Practices of Trust, Charisma and Motivation that Influence Teacher Retention in Texas Region 19 Rural Public Schools
    (2022-12-01T07:00:00.000Z) Meléndez-Carrillo, Jessica; Bigham, Gary; Bigham, Gary; Harper, Irma; Garrison, Mark
    Scholarly Delivery Framework The focus of this research and scholarly delivery are the leadership practices of trust, charisma and motivation that influence teacher retention in Texas region 19 rural public schools. The first scholarly delivery serves as a teaching tool for students in the educational leadership field seeking to obtain a master’s or doctoral degree. This article is titled “Is it the right thing to do?” “Examining Issues of Moral and Ethical Decisions in the School Setting” and it explores the moral and ethical decision making to transform an organization. The second scholarly delivery is an empirical article titled “Leadership Practices of Trust, Charisma and Motivation that Influence Teacher Retention in Texas Region 19 Rural Public Schools.” The article discovers interrelationships among trust, charisma, and motivation as related to school leadership and its role in teacher retention in rural schools.
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    Knowledge and Perceptions of Secondary Students Toward Agricultural Careers and Technologies Upon Completion of an Educational Program
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Koennecke, Eric R.; Williams, Kevin; Williams, Kevin; Robertson, J. T; Wolf, Nathan; Tarpley, Troy G.
    There are nearly 60,000 annual job opportunities expected for agricultural graduates between 2020 and 2025. However, as the pool of agricultural graduates becomes more urbanized, these positions are expected to become harder to fill. While previous research heavily indicates secondary student perceptions of agricultural careers and the factors behind career choices, there is little research in career education programs for the agricultural industry. The Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory were used as theoretical frameworks in designing this study. Selected students participated in an immersive career education experience hosted at West Texas A&M University over three days prior to data collection. The target population for this study consisted of secondary students enrolled in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources (AFNR) courses at high schools in the Texas Panhandle. Targeted students should be entering grades 11 or 12 and come from a non-traditional agricultural background. Due to a lack of applicants in a local area, the population was extended to include secondary students enrolled in AFNR programs in Texas. Eleven participants applied and were accepted to the program, encompassing students from traditional and non-traditional agricultural backgrounds. Data for this mixed-method study was collected via a retrospective pre-post survey questionnaire and phenomenological focus group interviews following the completion of an immersive career education program. The survey included five-point Likert-type scale questions assessing participant knowledge prior to and following program completion. Focus group questions assessed participant knowledge based on previous experiences in agriculture and with agricultural career areas. The researcher found that participant knowledge of agricultural career opportunities was low prior to the program, particularly in animal sciences, plant, soil, and environmental sciences, and knowledge of agricultural technologies. Through quantitative and qualitative data collection, secondary student participation in an immersive career education program was found to improve knowledge in all areas assessed. Participants were found to possess varying levels of knowledge about agricultural career areas, and were most confident in areas they held previous experience. Recommendations were made for additional research on this topic with larger samples and in varying geographical areas to further the opportunity for generalization.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Kobza, Anna Marie; Samuelson, Kendall L.; Samuelson, Kendall L.; Dr. John Richeson; Dr. Ty Lawrence
    ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of starch dilution with different sources of dietary fiber from terminal implant to slaughter on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and rumen buffering characteristics. Steers (n = 416; 372 ± 2.67 kg) were allocated to 48 pens in a randomized complete block design. Pens of cattle (n = 12 per treatment) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of steam-flaked corn-based diets containing: 1) CON; 7.50 % corn stalks on a DM basis fed for the entire feeding period, 2) CS; 14.75% corn stalks on a DM basis fed from terminal implant to slaughter, 3) WD; 9.50% wet distillers grains with solubles, and 7.50% corn stalks on a DM basis fed from terminal implant to slaughter, and 4) NR; 19.00% wet distillers grains with solubles, and 0.0% corn stalks on a DM basis fed from terminal implant to slaughter. Six days before administration of the terminal implant, steers were transitioned to their treatment diets using a two-ration system, whereas CON consumed the same diet throughout the entire feeding period. Within each pen, 2 steers were randomly selected to receive an indwelling ruminal pH bolus to quantify rumen pH and a 3-axis accelerometer tag to assess rumination time. Diet samples were collected weekly to determine particle size, NDF concentration, and physically effective fiber (peNDF). At slaughter, rumens were evaluated for the presence of scarring and lesions. Performance (BW, DMI, ADG, G:F) was not different (P ≥ 0.34) from initial to transition. Dry matter intake and metabolizable energy intake from transition to final were greatest for cattle consuming CS, intermediate for WD and CON, and least for NR (P < 0.01). Final BW and ADG did iv not differ among treatments from transition to final (P ≥ 0.19); however, G:F was greatest for NR, intermediate for WD, and least for CS and CON (P = 0.10). There was no difference (P ≥ 0.24) in hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling score, quality grade, yield grade, and percentage KPH fat among treatments. Steers consuming CS had greater (P = 0.08) 12th rib fat thickness. The proportion of abscessed livers did not differ (P = 0.26) among treatments. The peNDF was greatest for CS, intermediate for WD and CON, and least for NR (P < 0.01). Particles > 4.0 mm were greatest for CON and CS, intermediate for WD, and least for NR (P < 0.01). A treatment × day interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for daily rumination minutes and rumination per kg of DMI; rumination was greater for CS, intermediate for WD and CON, and least for NR early in the finishing period and greater for CS than NR towards the end of the finishing period. Similarly, a treatment × hour effect (P < 0.01) was observed for hourly rumination; cattle consuming CS had greater rumination than NR at 0200, 0400, 0600, 1200, 1400, 2000, 2200 and 2400 h. There was also a treatment × day interaction (P < 0.01) for rumen pH, but the diet appeared to have minimal effects on pH throughout the entire feeding period. A treatment × hour effect (P < 0.01) was observed for hourly pH; cattle consuming CON had greater rumen pH than WD and NR at 0400, 0600, and 800 h, but had minimal effects throughout the remainder of the 24 h period. Rumen scores of cattle consuming CON had a greater (P = 0.09) percentage of rumen score 3, but there were no other differences among dietary treatments (P > 0.31)The results of this study indicate that increasing the proportion of corn stalks in the diet post-terminal implant administration increases DMI, dietary peNDF, and rumination time. However, ruminal pH was v minimally impacted by decreased starch and greater fiber provided from either corn stalks or WDGS and suggests that roughage can be replaced with fibrous corn milling byproducts without negatively impacting rumen health.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Kelley-Diaz, Kirbi; Ingrassia, Brian; Ingrassia, Brian; Vizzini, Bryan; Brasington, Bruce C.
    The history of federal dietary advice in America is over a century long, and many historians have evaluated its transformation as it relates to the economy, war, and agriculture. Academics such as Marion Nestle and Harvey Levenstein have made long careers out of analyzing the connections between food and politics over the last half-century, dissecting how profit-driven corporate food producers have influenced federally sponsored dietary tracts going all the way back to World War II. However, there is a dearth of analysis regarding these tracts in the context of ongoing cultural discourses prior to World War II. This thesis ventures farther back in time to the decades leading up to World War I, and it intends to examine some of the foundations of modern dietary advice using United States Department of Agriculture pamphlets published between 1894 and 1918. More specifically, it attempts to discern what this advice reveals about food’s popular perception and how both industry and government attempted to utilize powers of bureaucracy to moderate not only food production but also its consumption.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Dockray, Chandler Ann; Tennant, Travis C.; Tennant, Travis C.; Lawrence, Ty E.; Lucherk, Loni; Tyson Brown
    Salmonellosis is the leading cause of bacteria foodborne illness in the United States with over 1 million illnesses annually (Scallan et al., 2015). Salmonella colonizes in the intestines and stress can cause disruptions of the tight junctions (Boyle et al., 2006) allowing for infection of other tissues such as the lymph nodes and liver (Ring, 1985). The objective of this study was to quantify the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in liver, colon, and subiliac lymph nodes (SLN). Feedlots (n=6) were surveyed, from the Texas Panhandle, quarterly across one year for differences in management. Liver (n=8), colon (n=8), and SLN (n=16) were sampled from cattle from each feedlot, quarterly. Liver samples were organized into severely abscessed (n=4) and edible (n=4). Colon samples were organized into #1 score (n=4) and #2 score (n=4) colons; categorization was based on the integrity of the epithelial cell layer, #1 colon layers resembled a very ridged surface and #2 colon surfaces were free of ridges and smooth. Weather data was collected from the Texas Tech University Mesonet. Salmonella was uncommon in the winter months of quarter 1 (1.70% prevalence) and quarter 2 (0% prevalence). In the warmer months, Salmonella prevalence increased dramatically with quarter 3 having 90.63% prevalence and quarter 4 having 20.45% prevalence. Overall, the greatest prevalence of Salmonella was in SLN from carcasses with a #2 colon (27.59%); the lowest prevalence of Salmonella was in the tissue from edible livers (18.75%). The greatest concentration of Salmonella was detected in #2 colons (2.16 logCFU/g); the lowest prevalence of Salmonella was detected in edible liver tissue (0.1logCFU/g). Feedlot B had the highest average prevalence of Salmonella (29.35%) whereas Feedlot A had the lowest average prevalence (17.19%) among all quarters and sample types. Of the liver and colon samples, roughly 19% of samples were positive for Salmonella whereas 25% of the SLN samples were positive for Salmonella. The relative risk of a SLN being positive for Salmonella when associated with a #1 colon or #2 colon was 0.77 (P = 0.37) and 0.71 (P = 0.22), respectively. The relative risk of a SLN being positive for Salmonella when associated with an edible or abscessed liver was 0.75 (P = 0.30) and 0.83 (P = 0.49), respectively. We hypothesize, samples taken during quarter 3 demonstrated the greatest prevalence of Salmonella likely due to an increase in precipitation and temperature. These data suggest that Salmonella proliferation is strongly associated to local climatic conditions. This would suggest that as temperature and precipitation increase during warmer months strategies need to be developed to minimize Salmonella. Though Salmonella is of notable risk in lymph nodes, these data illustrate other edible products such as the liver are also of concern.
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    Black Borderlands: Understanding the Pull of El Paso, 1900-1940
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Denney, Katelyn Elizabeth; Bowman, Timothy; Bowman, Timothy; Ingrassia, Brian; Kuhlman, Marty
    Most research into the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands region deals primarily with the Mexican, Anglo-European, and Native American populations that have interacted and adapted to life in a region between nations. The scholarship surrounding Texas history largely follows the state’s role during the Civil War, Texas Independence, military leaders, political change over time, and race relations between the Anglo population and the larger Mexican and Mexican-American populations. Not much has been done regarding African-American history or their migration in both the borderlands region and the western part of Texas from 1900 to 1940. This is especially true in El Paso, whose large Mexican-American population serves as the basis for most scholarship on the city. El Paso serves as a historical anomaly at a time in United States history when racial tensions were at an impressive high. El Paso managed to exist as a hub of some semblance of racial unity and a city of opportunity for African Americans. To understand why El Paso is such an outlier in the history of African American migration and life within United States borders, historians need to understand what enticed African Americans to settle on Texas’s borders in spite of numerous factors that otherwise dissuaded settlers. This study argues that despite larger state-wide tensions, El Paso was as a major pull factor that resulted in the settlement of thousands of African Americans at a time where the deep South saw a mass exodus of non-white peoples.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Denham, Jennifer; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Hooper, H.H. (Buddy), Jr.; Bigham, Gary; Garrison, Mark
    Background: Individual Education Plan (IEP) meetings can bring various feelings for everyone involved, and communication is crucial to a successful meeting. Literature about communication in these meetings is limited. This article explores the role of the educational diagnostician in communicating with parents for IEP meetings. Purpose: This research aimed to examine how educational diagnosticians communicate with families and determine if families understand the outcomes of the IEP meetings. Research Design: A thematic analysis was utilized in this qualitative study to understand the phenomenon, communication, the educational diagnosticians in the Region 16 service area serving rural schools. Findings: Educational diagnosticians adhere to state standards and communicate with families; however, parents still have difficulty understanding the special education process and their student’s IEP goals. Conclusion: Educational diagnosticians in rural Texas panhandle schools use best practices when communicating with families. Those best practices include required documents given to families promptly, timelines followed by federal laws, and preparing families for IEP meetings by having conversations.
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    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Cunningham-Torres, Alexis Rebecca; Reardon, Matthew; Reardon, Matthew; Brasington, Bruce C.; Shaffer, Wade
    The historiography of the American Revolution is lacking tremendously in regard to the participation of its patriotic women. Their contributions to the non-importation agreements of the 1760s and 1770s have been thoroughly examined by historians Linda Kerber, Mary Beth Norton, and Rosemarie Zagarri. However, the relationship between their participation in non-importation and the alteration of identity regimes in America has yet to be dissected. As other scholars have noted, the Revolution erupted in an Atlantic World wracked by intense epistemological confusion which had begun to impact the way Americans understood personal identity formation. An older identity regime, predicated on a socially turned-self, was giving way to a system of identity which viewed the self as intrinsic and autonomous. Their respective studies, however, fail to adequately explain why the Revolution brought forth this change. This thesis uses these inquiries to explore how women’s participation in non-importation during the Revolution played a catalytic role in this transition of the American identity regimes. This study emphasizes the constitutive nature of language; that is, it provides a discursive analysis of newspapers, broadsides, diaries, sermons, pamphlets, and letters to argue that women’s participation in the American Revolution assisted in bringing about the ascendency of the modern regime of identity as an effort to stabilize the early republic’s nascent gendered order.