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ItemAbsorption Water Treatment Potential of Crop-Waste Biochar Made by Controlled and Uncontrolled Pyrolysis: An Investigation into Converting Biowaste to Bioresource for the Developing World(WTAMU Cornette Library, 2020-03-05) Pimentel, Andy; Bhattacharia, Sanjoy K.; Howell, NathanAccess to clean water is an issue that persists in many developing countries. Available water is often polluted from inadequately treated agricultural, industrial, and human wastes. There are many ways to address environmental challenges for polluted water including source water protection, altering the use patterns of water, and treating heavily polluted water sources before they mix with other, cleaner waters. Employing water protection and water treatment strategies in developing world contexts in particular is often challenging due to a lack of financial resources, industrial infrastructure, and technical know-how. One approach to bridge the gap between the developed “well resourced” world and the developing “limited resource” world is to make use of materials readily available, even waste materials, to treat water and minimize solid and hazardous waste generation. Biochar is such an application of this approach. It is a microporous, carbon-rich adsorbent material that can be made from any virtually any kind of waste biomass or other waste organic material. Since many developing world communities are highly agrarian, people in those communities have access to a large amount of crop and animal waste which can be used as biochar feedstock. In our study, we made crop-waste (rice hull, pecan shell, cottonseed) biochar using temperature-controlled pyrolysis in a muffle furnace (MF) reminiscent of the kinds of high technology, high resource process in the developed world. We contrast that with biochars made from a simple and easily built top-lift updraft (TLUD) pyrolysis process that would not be difficult for developing world communities to appropriate in their local context with biomass they have on hand. We looked specifically at the contrasting abilities of these two types of biochar, MF and TLUD, to adsorb cationic and anion colored dyes in water through controlled shaking experiments. Quantitative examination of the amount of dye that can be removed, on different biochar, and at differing pH helped to discern the mechanism of adsorptive interaction on the biochars. We then relate the way the biochar was made, in light of the material from which it was made, to the adsorptive performance we saw in the dyes. These comparisons provide fundamental understanding into the nature of ionic pollutant surface interactions on biochars. This understanding can be used to design treatment processes for industrial, sanitary, storm-, and agricultural wastewater in both developing and developed worlds. ItemAccomplishments under the Chancellor's Research Initiative in Water Resources at WTAMU(2023-03-02) Parker, David; Bednarz, CraigOn May 23, 2019, the Texas A&M System announced a Chancellor's Research Initiative (CRI) between WTAMU and Texas A&M AgriLife. The initiative provided for the hiring of two new WTAMU faculty members: Dr. Bednarz in Agricultural Sciences (hired Spring, 2020) who has a 50% joint appointment with AgriLife Research, and Dr. Parker in Engineering (hired Fall, 2021) who has a 50% joint appointment with AgriLife Extension. The CRI provided $1 million in startup funding to purchase laboratory and field equipment and support undergraduate and graduate students. As outlined in this poster presentation, the CRI funds have been used to leverage numerous collaborative research projects among WT, AgriLife, and USDA researchers in addition to county extension agents, farmers/producers, and faculty at other universities. ItemAdditive Manufacturing of 316L Steel: Investigation of Thermal Stability and Crystalline Properties(2022-03-03) Bognich, Gabrielle; McGaugh, Jay; Aria, Saman; Jackson, Matt; Jones, Steve; Howell, Nathan; Bhattacharia, SanjoyAdditive Manufacturing (AM) technology is a growing industry in the world of engineering. Similar to 3D printing, AM technology allows designers to create metal parts without the limitation of geometric restrictions of traditional methods, like machining. AM can be applied in industries such as biomedical and aerospace. The AM research conducted at West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) uses laser technology for powder-bed infusion (PBLF) using an SLM 125 to print 316L stainless steel parts. Although AM offers a wide variety of application, AM technology cannot produce consistent parts due to unknown factors that create defects in the part and impact the resultant material properties. In this study, a thermal analysis was conducted on printed 316 L Stainless Steel samples using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to record phase change, melting points, other transitions like oxidation and decomposition and mass loss/gain. Thermal analysis demonstrated a comparative thermal stability of the printed steel. Additionally, the samples were analyzed with an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) machine for crystallinity of printed steel and a baseline elemental analysis. Results of the XRD analysis indicate the printed material is not entirely crystalline in structure and further analysis is needed to develop a standard XRD profile for AM 316L Stainless Steel. The findings of this study indicate the PBLF process changes the thermal properties of power material and the need for future studies to understand the impacts of material properties. ItemAdvercasting: The Effectiveness of Podcast Ads(WTAMU Cornette Library, 2020-03-05) Brooks, Mary E.Podcast listeners are on the upswing as our podcast series options. Today’s American listeners equal approximately 90 million monthly listeners (Midroll, 2019) who can choose amongst 750,000 shows and more than 30 million episodes (Winn, 2019). One reason for the large variety of podcast content is due to the lack of broadcasting regulations that are not mandated for podcasters (Henning, 2017). Moreover, the majority of podcasts are free of cost, portable, convenient, entertaining, educational, and have a storytelling quality that listeners crave. Henning (2017) states that podcasts also serve as a new business model for various organizations due to the prevalency of advertisers clamoring to get their messages into podcasts. This growth in podcast popularity has numerous implications for advertisers. Midroll conducted a survey about podcast listening habits where more than 150,000 active podcast listeners answered questions about their advertising preferences, regardless of medium. Results indicated that more than 50% of survey participants either sometimes or always avoided ads on television, billboards, radio and digital yet, 81% of participants revealed they are sometimes or always attentive to podcast ads (Midroll, 2019). What’s more, is that a majority of these listeners purchased a product due to an ad they heard on a favorite podcast. This study aims to extend the research on podcasting and advertising by exploring how advertising is perceived by listeners in terms of how they interact with ads, their advertising preferences, and their feelings of relatability between ad messaging and specific podcast content. Thus, the following research questions are posed: RQ1: How do listeners respond to advertising in podcasts (skip, watch, support, call-to-action variables)? RQ2: Where do listeners prefer advertising in a podcast (beginning, middle, end)? RQ3: What type of promotional messages do podcast listeners prefer? RQ4: How do listeners feel about advertising message congruency within podcast content? Previous research has been conducted about podcasts with advertising as a key ingredient in the articles, including advantages of podcast advertising for brands (Brands, 2005), more active listeners who are more likely to support brands that engage in podcast advertising (McClung & Johnson, 2010), and how independent podcasters use advertising for financial gain (Markman & Sawyer, 2014). This study differs in that its goal is to unveil the effectiveness of podcast advertising. While advertising industry publications, like AdWeek and AdAge, overflow with podcast advertising musings, this article will add to the academic literature within advertising and broadcasting, which is just beginning to expand. ItemThe Amarillo Symphony: The First 100 Years(2023-03-02) Hieb, KimberlyThe Amarillo Symphony: The First 100 Years will be a book that explores the rich history of the Amarillo Symphony Orchestra, one of the Panhandle's longest standing cultural institutions. The volume will celebrate the organization as the result of the hard work and eager support of Amarillo's citizens and calls attention to Amarillo's stature as a cultural center of the American Southwest in spite of its position as a small city located in the center of the Texas Panhandle a great distance from neighboring metropolitan centers. Moreover, this project will encourage the exploration of musical cultures of the many other small cities scattered throughout the rural regions of Texas, communities whose ardent and local support of the arts has been largely ignored on national stage. ItemApplying Generational Theory to Greater Understand Desirable Relationship Characteristics in Multigenerational Team(2021-03-04) Yarbrough, Jillian R.As the demographics of the workforce change, consider that for the first time, in many organizations five generations are working side by side on multigenerational teams. How can this burgeoning generational diversity be leveraged to support efficiency within organizations and specifically workplace teams? The following paper will seek to identify characteristics of effective multigenerational teams through an in-depth study of Generational Theory, Generational Archetypes and the generation’s preferred relationship characteristics. Included will be an in-depth review of literature and data from observations of multigenerational team experiences. Based on literature and observations recommendations for supporting multigenerational relationships will be offered. ItemApplying New Frameworks to Vocal Fatigue(2022-03-03) Collom, Zeth EverickOccupational voice users are particularly susceptible to voice problems and voice disorders associated with vocal hyperfunction. Vocal fatigue can be particularly troublesome to teachers and performers as an independent symptom or an element of more significant voice disorder. Vocal fatigue lacks a specific, empirical definition although numerous attempts have been made. One approach attempts to define vocal fatigue as a physiological consequence. Exercise principles and related topics have been applied to define vocal fatigue. In addition, numerous studies have been conducted to identify specific laryngeal function measures that correlate with reports of vocal fatigue with mixed results. Other reports have implied that vocal fatigue is primarily a patient-reported phenomenon, relying heavily on self-report and perception of various degrees and elements. Recently, Hunter and several experts collaborated to develop new descriptions of relevant terms and concepts pertaining to vocal fatigue. Based upon literature review, expert opinion, and linguistic modeling, terms were proposed and defined. In this new description of vocal fatigue, a clinical framework consisting of "vocal demand", "vocal demand response", "vocal effort", and "vocal fatigue" emerged. As vocal fatigue remains prevalent in multiple cases of voice disorders in several populations, this new description and framework can be applied to clinical cases to better assess and treat patients in clinical practice. This presentation discusses past definitions of vocal fatigue, introduces Hunter et al.'s (2020) new definitions and framework pertaining to vocal fatigue, and applies these concepts to two case studies from clinical voice practice at the WT Speech and Hearing Clinic. ItemAt-Home Fathers, Breadwinning Mothers: Relational Dialectics in Lived vs. Mediated Experiences of Fathers as Primary Caregivers(WTAMU Cornette Library, 2020-03-05) Huntington, HeidiWhile a growing body of research demonstrates the importance of involved fathers in healthy child development (Child & Family Research Partnership, 2018), very involved fathers – those acting as primary caregivers for their children – must contend with a number of stereotyped societal expectations about hegemonic masculinity, which in the U.S. place men in the traditional “breadwinner” role (Ammari & Schoenebeck, 2016; Medved, 2016; Parker & Stepler, 2017). Fathers who do stay home often report feelings such as identity struggle, career derailment, social stigma, and social isolation (Ammari & Schoenebeck, 2016; Beaubien, 2018; Cripe, 2007; Livesay, 2008a; Ludden, 2013; Harrington et al., 2012) that may come from adopting a role inconsistent with their primary socialization (Coskuner-Balli & Thompson, 2012). At the same time, the willingness of fathers to challenge these societal norms and assume primary caregiving duties can have a significant positive impact on the career trajectories of their breadwinning partners (Beaubien, 2018; Harrington et al., 2012), and also challenge or reduce gender stereotypes over time (Chesley, 2011; Harrington et al., 2012; Medved, 2016). A source for social construction of gender roles and parenting schema may be mediated depictions of parenthood, which may both reflect and perpetuate parenting and gender role stereotypes. Similarly to schema, mental models, or individualized cognitive frameworks people hold regarding the “general idea of a specific phenomenon” and are used to interpret or evaluate subsequent information, are often produced through media viewing (Mastro, Behm-Morawitz & Ortiz, 2007). However, research suggests that in the case of mothers, mediated representations of motherhood do not accurately reflect the lived experience of at-home mothers, while still shaping the parent’s thinking and feeling about the self (Orgad, 2016). Although the experiences of both working and stay-at-home mothers have been explored in the literature, (e.g. Buzzanell, Meisenbach, Remke, Liu, Bowers & Conn, 2005; Orgad, 2016; Meisenbach, 2010), more work is needed to better understand how stay-at-home fathers negotiate the identity struggle that comes with taking on a role that challenges hegemonic masculinity. This mixed-methods study will build on previous scholarship that has examined relationships between media portrayals and the lived experiences of stay-at-home mothers to extend this line of inquiry to stay-at-home fathers. ItemÂ¡Bienvenidos!: Committing to Diversity and Inclusion with Spanish-Language College Orientations for Parents and Family(2023-03-02) Garcia, Nancy; Ramos Salazar, Leslie; Correa, PriscellaHispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) strive to recruit and retain Hispanic students by developing programs and initiatives tailored specifically to this group. However, traditional institutional programming and student orientation processes often fail to consider the needs of diverse families, such as Hispanic family members. Findings of prior studies highlight the importance of incorporating families during the college planning process to increase the success rate of first-generation and low-income college students. In 2022, a Spanish-language college orientation session for parents and family was resumed after a few years of not materializing. The two Spanish orientation sessions included various college-related sessions, such as financial education and faculty and student panels specifically tailored to Hispanic families. The inclusive leadership of Latino/a/x faculty, staff, and students was imperative to this orientation's successful development and execution. Suggestions and valuable insight for practice from the perspective of three Hispanic faculty who were part of the planning committee and assisted during the event are presented to guide practitioners through developing orientations inclusive of Hispanic families' cultural and language needs. By establishing a Hispanic community that better guides families with no prior experience or exposure to the college experience, HSIs can provide stronger support to incoming students and families. The findings of this case study on Spanish-Language College Orientation provide suggestions for practice in the planning, executing, and evaluating orientations tailored to the families of incoming Hispanic students in higher education. ItemBarriers to Rural Reproductive Health Clinic Utilization & Effective Interventions Used(2022-03-03) Franklin, FelinaBackground Community health clinics have surfaced to provide primary care to low-income individuals, but they are currently hurting due to overwhelmingly high no-show rates (Population Reference Bureau, 2016). The rural reproductive clinic in this study, serves a similar population as community health clinics and has found no shows and missed appointments to be significant in the clinic efficiency reports. Patients most likely to miss appointments at community health clinics were found to be younger, African American/Black patients, and lower income (Boshers, 2018; Miller et al., 2015). Interventions are defined as ways the clinic attempted to assist patients to keep appointments including reminder calls, transportation vouchers, etc. (Molfenter, 2013; Ullah et al., 2018). Studies indicate that implementing a program that provides transportation, increasing exposure of social services provided by the clinic, educating patients on the importance of preventative health care decreased barriers to care leading to missed appointments (Boshers, 2018). The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to patients attending appointments at a rural reproductive clinic and report the most effective interventions used to address those barriers. Methods The data was originally collected for clinic efficiency compliance measures. Agency staffs collected data via phone survey including demographics, reason for missed appointment, distance from clinic, and whether the patient rescheduled the appointment during the call. Calls were made to 611 patients that missed at least one scheduled appointment by not informing clinic staff or called a "no-show". Two-hundred twenty-three (36%) patients were reached by phone. Interventions offered to patients at the time of the call to address the barrier reported included taxi vouchers, childcare and wage subsidies, gas cards, phone call and text/email reminders, and education/clarification on the importance of keeping the appointment or answering questions about offered services or cost. Results Patients most likely to miss appointments were younger (25 and under), Hispanic, female and of lower economic status. The biggest barrier to gathering data was the 61% of unreachable patients due to wrong phone number, no answer, disconnected phone number, etc. The most common reasons for missing an appointment were the patient forgot or unexpected work/school, family illness, transportation, childcare issues, or questions/concerns about the appointment. The most effective intervention used by the clinic was the follow up calls to those who missed an appointment. Almost half (46%) of the calls made to patients resulted in a rescheduled appointment at the time of the call followed by more than half (57%) of patients that were provided education. Conclusions Further investigation is needed to examine how to reach the 61% of patients that were unreachable at the time of this study. There should be comparison studies of other rural reproductive health clinics studied. ItemBiosaline Agriculture: Tomato Production in Egypt and Its Export Potential(2021-03-04) Almas, Lal; Usman, M.; Hazman, M.; El-Sayed, M.; Shams El-Din, A.Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), an important vegetable, has the highest area under cultivation among vegetables at the global level. Egypt is one of the major tomato producing and exporting country. With a population of over 102 million and annual population growth at 2.27%, Egypt is considered one of the fastest-growing nations in the African continent. Egypt’s total land area is 1,000,450 sq. km and the population covers only the 10 percent while rest of the country is desert. The agriculture sector plays significant role in the Egyptian economy, contributing 14.5 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. The agricultural sector accounts for 28 percent of all jobs, and over 55 percent of employment in Upper Egypt is agriculture-related. Egypt’s agriculture sector is dominated by small farms using traditional practices. Field crops contribute about 75 % of the total value of Egypt’s agricultural production, while the rest comes from livestock products, fruits and vegetables, and other specialty crops. Major field crops include corn (maize), rice, wheat, sorghum, and fava (broad) beans. Despite a considerable output, the cereal production in Egypt falls short of the country’s total consumption. A substantial amount of foreign exchange is spent annually on the import of cereals and milling products. Egypt is one the major producer of wheat in Africa, with 8.9 million tons in 2020 against its consumption of 21.7 million tonnes. Hence, Egypt is the second-largest importer in the world with more than 12.8 million tonnes in 2020. One of the the main challenges of wheat production in Egypt is available land area. The total arable area is 3.3 million hectares. It is extremely productive and can be cropped two or even three times per year. Most land is cropped at least twice a year, but agricultural productivity is limited by salinity, which afflicts an estimated 35% of cultivated land, and drainage problems. Another challenge to Egypt’s agriculture is shortage of water. Water is a very scarce resource in the region, the major source of this essential commodity is the Nile River. The second threat and the most imminent is the growth of the population. By 2050, Africa’s population is expected to grow by an additional 1.3 billion people, the equivalent of today’s China. For the case of Egypt, the population is expected to reach over 111 million in 2025, lowering the per capita water availability from 1123 m3 in 1990 to 630 m3 in 2025. This shows that the challenge now for Egypt is to look for perennial solutions to lower its dependency on the Nile water supply and to find sustainable alternatives like desalination and biosaline agriculture. This study focuses on the production profitability of tomato by using data from 1961 through 2019 and to identify strategies to increase its production and enhance its export in future in order to earn foreign echange to cover expenses for its imported wheat. The statistical procedures has been applied to analyze and predict the production and consumption of tomato given the estimated population growth of the country up until 2050. The study also provides an overview of all the available opportunities and challenges facing tomato production and its significance in Egypt’s export contribution and potential. ItemC.S. Lewis and Gender Expressions on How Women and Man of Faith Communicate in the work of Mere Christianity(2022-03-03) Albarran, PaolaC.S. Lewis is best known as a Christian apologist, novelist, and poet whose most notable works in the field of theology includes themes about fiction and non-fiction Christian apologetics. Based on the groundwork of scholarship on C.S. Lewis life and writings, he demonstrated that his work is theologically rich and seems to have been informed by original insight into communication theories, including gender communication. One of his most notorious books of non-fiction Christian apologetics is Mere Christianity. In Mere Christianity, C.S. Lewis, looked at human life from his own philosophy of life based on the Christian Theology. By addressing the positive influence that C.S, Lewis may have on theology and communication, this research presents a comprehensive narrative analysis of the surprising elements of gender communication in Lewis' book Mere Christianity from his response to women's subordination to the challenges that Christian marriages face. The aim of this research is to analyze C.S Lewis' unique techniques of expression to reveal an intent focus on fostering gender discourses with the purpose of understanding how women and man of faith communicate in the work of Mere Christianity. ItemA Campaign to Improve Seasonal Flu Immunization Compliance in a University Nursing Health and Wellness Clinic(WTAMU Cornette Library, 2020-03-05) Reyes, Helen; Loftin, Collette; Hartin, VickiAbstract Seasonal influenza can result in enormous physical and economic burdens. Healthy People 2020 reports that substantially fewer than the recommended 70% in most age groups actually receive the immunization (Bekkat-Berkani & Romano-Massotti, 2018). The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the WTAMU Nursing Health and Wellness Clinic seasonal flu campaign was considered advantageous to those who received it on campus. A brief survey was developed for distribution to those who received the influenza immunization during the 2018-2019 flu season. Making the flu vaccine convenient and inexpensive/free has been an effective mechanism to improve immunization acceptance in our community. Response rate for the survey was 61% or 106 individuals with 47 (44%), reporting that they would not have sought out the seasonal flu immunization had it not been made available on the university campus. More importantly, when the 106 participants were asked where on campus they received their immunization, only 43 (41%) physically came to the nursing clinic, while 63 (59%) were provided the vaccine in their departmental workplace. Of those individuals receiving immunization in their office or workplace, 24 (38%) reported that had it not been provided in this venue, they would not have gone to the nursing clinic or elsewhere to be immunized. Of those responding to the survey, 65 individuals reported having received an influenza immunization during the 2017-2018 season. The remaining 41 respondents either could not recall or denied receiving the vaccine. However, when asked about their intentions to be immunized in the 2019-2020 season, 98 participants related positive intention to receive the seasonal flu immunization. ItemChallenges and Academic Growth of Multilingual Students at Eastridge(2023-03-02) Hwang, Sang; Hindman, Janet; Robinson, Elaina; Cervantes, KarimeThere are a number of reasons why multilingual learners are placed in special education programs even when it is unnecessary. In the United States, there is growing concern about over-identifying and under-identifying English learners (ELs) with disabilities. The research study proposes to examine the challenges in special education identification for multicultural learners at Eastridge Elementary School of the Amarillo Independent School District in Amarillo, Texas. This school represents a good sample of multilingual learners with 95.7% of minority enrollment, including 45% of Asian or Asian/Pacific Islander (mostly with refugee students), 28% of Hispanic/Latino, 23% of Black or African American, and 4% of White/Caucasian. The purpose of the research is threefold: 1) to collect updated data of diversity demographics at Eastridge Elementary School in Amarillo, Texas; 2) to investigate the challenges in special education identification for multilingual learners at school; and 3) to compare and analyze both district benchmark data of multilingual students with the Texas Academic Performance Reports (TAPR) and with our research findings to determine student growth in English Language Arts and Reading (ELAR). Ultimately, the research project will seek to suggest high leverage teaching models for multilingual students who are also eligible for special education services. ItemCharacterizing Monotone Games(WTAMU Cornette Library, 2020-03-05) Barthel, Ann-Christine; Hoffman, EricSolution concepts in games of strategic heterogeneity (GSH), which include games of strategic complements (GSC) as a special case, have been shown to possess very useful properties, such as the existence of highest and lowest serially undominated strategies, and the equivalence of the stability of equilibria and dominance solvability. The main result of this paper gives necessary and sufficient conditions for when a very general class of games, referred to as games of mixed heterogeneity (GMH), can be transformed into GSH in such a way so that these properties are preserved, allowing us to draw the same strong conclusions about solution sets in games that are not originally GSH. This is achieved by reversing the orders on the actions spaces of a given subset of players. Our second main result shows, rather surprisingly, that under mild conditions on the underlying ordering of action spaces, the reversal of orders is the only way in which such a transformation can be achieved. Applications to aggregate games, market games, and crime networks are given. ItemChina's Import Demand Analysis of Grain Sorghum from USA(2023-03-02) Islam, Tania; Almas, Lal; Arnold, Chelsea; Guerrero, BridgetSorghum is an ancient grain which is the most commonly used feed grain for livestock. The United States is the world's second largest producer and top exporter of grain sorghum. It is grown in more than a dozen states across the country and sorghum belt runs from South Dakota to Southern Texas. China, one of the fastest growing economy, is the major destination of U.S. grain sorghum. This research study examines the determinants of an import demand function for U.S. sorghum in China considering the macroeconomic variables such as Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and exchange rates (Yen-US$). The time series data from 1991-2020 were used for this analysis. This paper follows the single equation import demand model developed by Thursday and Thursday (1984). China's import demand for sorghum was determined as a function of derived demand of sorghum which is constructed as with the grain sorghum import price, domestic corn price, exchange rate, the country's GDP, and number of livestock production. In 2021, The United States produced about 448 million bushels of grain sorghum and exported 267.2 million bushes to China as chief importer (USDA ERS, 2021). These statistics indicates, U.S. sorghum export market is largely depending on China's sorghum import demand. It is projected that China will continue this import volume while sorghum is low cost feed grain and is substitute for high price corn. The results of this study will be an important sorghum trade analysis and recommendation for world sorghum trading countries, especially for China to implement favorable import policies for US sorghum. On the other hand, this analysis will also be beneficial for US sorghum producers in assessing their export potential not only to China's livestock industry but also other export markets. ItemCircadian Regulation of Peripheral Serotonin in Mice(2023-03-02) Karaganis, Stephen; Karaganis, StephenMost organisms possess biological clocks which control and coordinate numerous physiological processes over each 24-hour day. Circadian oscillators play a role in generating biological rhythms and coordinating numerous processes with environmental stimuli, such as timing of a meal or exposure to light. The indolamine molecule serotonin is an important peripheral hormone produced by the intestinal mucosa of mammals, but its regulation as an output of the circadian clock is not well understood. Recent studies in my lab have investigated circadian rhythmicity of serotonin and its entrainment to light stimuli or food availability in various tissues or compartments in mice, including blood serum, stools, and the intestinal wall. In these experiments, mice were fed ad libitum (AL) or placed on a gradual daytime restricted feeding regimen (DRF) while maintained in a 12:12 light-dark cycle (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Using a repeated measures design, we demonstrated a high-amplitude circadian rhythm of serotonin in stool samples that persisted in constant conditions and entrained to both light and food availability, with a peak occurring close to the day-night transition under LD conditions. In contrast to some published findings, no circadian rhythm of serotonin was detected in blood serum. Preliminary data suggest that duodenal serotonin is rhythmic in LD and peaks later during the late night. This is consistent with our measurements of tph1 mRNA rhythms, which peaked during the late night in LD or DD, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that peripheral serotonin is differentially regulated by the circadian clock in different compartments, and the rhythm of serotonin in stools is likely contributed to by oscillators outside the duodenum. ItemCircadian Rhythms in Peripheral Serotonin in Mice(2021-03-04) Karaganis, StephenMost organisms possess biological circadian clocks which control and coordinate numerous physiological processes over each twenty-four hour day. Circadian oscillators play a role in generating biological rhythms and coordinating numerous processes with environmental stimuli (such as timing of a meal or exposure to light). In rodents it has been demonstrated that restricting the availability of food to a short window of time during the day can shift the phase of rhythmic oscillations in some peripheral organs (such as the gut and liver) while not affecting the phase of the light entrainable hypothalamic circadian pacemaker. We hypothesize that this paradigm of restricted feeding (RF) would result in a phase shift in the daily rhythm of the hormone serotonin within the serum and gut of mice compared with mice maintained on an ad libitum diet (AL). We also measured circulating levels of platelets since most of the serotonin in the blood is taken up and transported by platelets. Here we present data demonstrating the daily profile of serotonin and its major metabolite, 5HIAA, in serum and duodenum of AL or RF animals maintained under LD or free running conditions. As expected, motility rhythms entrained to the rhythm of food availability cues, whereas no statistically significant rhythm was detected in serum serotonin levels. In duodenum, serotonin and 5HIAA levels appeared to be rhythmic in AL mice only. Interestingly, a circadian rhythm in circulating platelets levels was detected only under RF conditions, but not in AL animals or in constant darkness. This suggests that food intake, but not light, may drive oscillations in platelet production or serve as a zeitgeber for entrainment. Further investigations of circadian control of serotonin biosynthesis and metabolism is ongoing. ItemClinical Experience of Family Nurse Practitioner Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic(2023-03-02) Phillips, Angela; Neely, Shaina; Smoot, TeresaThe aim of this study was to ascertain the experiences of Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) students participating in clinical experience during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify the clinical challenges faced by FNP students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background: Literature reveals the current COVID-19 pandemic poses urgent and prolonged threats to the health and well-being of the population worldwide. FNP students have struggled to find clinical sites and preceptors during the pandemic. Design: A qualitative research design involving interviews asking open-ended questions to converse with students was conducted. Interviews were conducted during the fall 2021 semester. Method: All interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Each transcript was read multiple times and themes were developed. Three main themes emerged. Conclusion: Clinical experience is an intricate part of the program as confidence to treat and educate patients is paramount. The themes identified during student interviews included: 1) Anxiety and stress; 2) Hindrance of knowledge base; and 3) Personal growth. Recommendation: Utilization of telehealth during education and clinical experiences will assist the FNP student maintain success throughout the program. ItemComparison of reproductive and early growth performance of an F1 USDA Prime yield grade one carcass clone sire and an industry-leading purebred sire in the Beef x Dairy production system(2023-03-02) Richardson, Katylyn JoThe objectives of this research were to determine if an F1 USDA Prime, yield grade 1 sire produced from the WTAMU PrimeOne Project (AxG1) was a competitive sire for producing dairy composites when compared to a purebred Angus sire (Foundation), and to evaluate any subsequent reproductive impact of sire on dam. Dairy cows (n = 1,930) were artificially inseminated resulting in 764 pregnancies with 567 births and 539 live calves. Data was collected at a large commercial dairy and analyzed using SAS 9.4 with sire as fixed effect; lactation, breeding technician and services per conception were random effects. Individual animal was experimental unit (n = 539). Conception rates were 39% for AxG1 and 30% for Foundation (P ≤ 0.01). Average gestation length (GL) was 284-d and 280-d for AxG1 and Foundation, respectively (P â‰¤ 0.01). Calves by Foundation reported lower average birth weight (BW) than those by AxG1 (P ≤ 0.01) with no difference in calving ease score (CE) (P = 0.24). Calves sired by Foundation were lighter than those sired by AxG1 at 60-d (P ≤ 0.01) but not 120-d (P = 0.97). Calves by Foundation also reported higher average daily gains (ADG) at 60-d than calves by AxG1 (0.61 and 0.58 kg; P ≤ 0.01), and ADG tended to differ by sire from 0-120-d (0.70 and 0.67 kg; P = 0.09). Sire had no effect on morbidity (P = 0.25) or mortality (P = 0.15). Post-partum interval (PPI), time from first estrus to conception, and number of services to conception were not different between sires (P = 0.35; P = 0.32; P = 0.37). Data from this trial indicates the cloned progeny sire increased conception rates, but the purebred Angus sire was more favorable for GL, BW and progeny growth performance. Neither sire negatively impacted subsequent reproductive performance of the dam.