An Investigation of the Generation Cohort, Self-Efficacy, and Innovation of Faculty Teaching with ChatGPT in Texas Higher Education Institutions

Date

2024-03-07

Authors

Ramos Salazar, Leslie
Peeples, Shanna

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Abstract

Generative artificial intelligence (AI) such as ChatGPT is challenging the status quo of higher education institutions. In this study, the frameworks of diffusions of innovation, self-efficacy, and technological pedagogical content knowledge provide insights in the investigation of the use of ChatGPT in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine the generational cohort and faculty rank differences based on the types of generative AI used, learning approaches, and the integration of course assignments. Further, we examine the predictors of the use of ChatGPT in the classroom. Findings reveal generation differences in the use of ChatGPT. Further, both self-efficacy and innovation were significant predictors of the use of ChatGPT in the classroom.

Description

Generative artificial intelligence (AI) such as ChatGPT has been transforming higher education (Adiguzel, Kaya, & Cansu, 2023). ChatGPT is a "general-purpose conversation chatbot based on the GPT-3 language model developed by OpenAI" (Zhai, 2023, p. 1). ChatGPT offers benefits to higher education users such as experiential learning, problem-solving capacities, and personal tutoring (Hin Hong, 2023). From the uncertainty involving the effects (whether positive or negative) of ChatGPT in higher education, some faculty may lack the self-efficacy or confidence in using ChatGPT in their courses (Twyford, Le Fevre, & Timperley, 2017). The theoretical frameworks of Rogers' (1962) diffusion of innovations, technological pedagogical content knowledge, and Bandura's (1998) self-efficacy will provide the foundation to investigate the generation cohort and faculty ranking of faculty in the use of ChatGPT in their classrooms. Furthers, teachers' self-efficacy and innovation are two factors that help explain teachers' behavior. As such, our study will be the first to examine both predictors of teachers' use of ChatGPT in their classroom. The objectives of this study are to examine the generational cohort and faculty rank differences in the types of generative AI used by higher education faculty, ChatGPT learning approaches, and the integration of ChatGPT into their course assignments. Additionally, this study examined the predictors (teachers' self-efficacy and innovation) of the use of ChatGPT in the classroom. Data collection methodology is survey methods using Qualtrics.

Keywords

2024 Faculty and Student Research Poster Session and Research Fair, West Texas A&M University, College of Business, Poster, Generative artificial intelligence (AI), ChatGPT, Open AI, Higher education

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