Prince-Archbishops and Local Liturgies in Late Seventeenth-Century Salzburg




Hieb, Kimberly

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Situated within the Holy Roman Empire the Archbishopric of Salzburg occupied a unique geopolitical position in the seventeenth century. A prince-archbishop who assumed both sacred and secular power ruled the individual principality, which was sandwiched between two powerful political entities in the early modern era: Bavaria and the Habsburg hereditary lands. Building on the existing scholarship regarding the role of music and governance in the Holy Roman Empire (Saunders 1995, Weaver 2012, Fisher 2014) this poster presents a diachronic overview of music produced under a series of late seventeenth-century prince-archbishops. Tracking the shifting nature of Salzburg’s local sacred traditions under each ruler richly augments our understanding of regional Catholic history, which begs for further exploration (Monson 2002, Ditchfield 1995, Ducreux 2011). Composers Heinrich Biber and Andreas Hofer served Salzburg prince-archbishops Guidobald von Thun (r. 1654–1668), Maximilian Gandolf von Kuenburg (r. 1668–1687) and Johann Ernst von Thun (r. 1687–1709) and left behind a robust repertory of sacred music that reflects local traditions. These compositions are each associated with a particular Catholic feast yet set non-liturgical texts: richly centonized amalgamations of prose, poetry, scripture, and hymn verses. The inventive repertoire cultivated by each patron, therefore, reflects the religious values of each individual prince archbishop, which were inherently political according to his position as both a sacred and secular ruler. These musical sources grant insight into each leader’s approach to negotiating the region’s unique capacity as an individual principality that was a constituent component of both the Holy Roman Empire and the Universal Catholic Church.


History: This research is part of a book proposal that is currently under review with Routledge Press. I am also planning to propose a version of this research at the International Conference on Baroque Music this summer (June 2021). Data Collection Methodology: The sources are largely manuscripts and prints of musical compositions written by composers employed by various prince-archbishops in Salzburg in the second half of the seventeenth century. Other sources include liturgical books that were printed or collected by these rulers and secondary sources providing details regarding the legislative activity (or lack thereof!) of these prince-archbishops. Expected Findings: Trends shift from administration to administration in Salzburg, as one would expect. Guidobald (the earliest ruler) was all about advancing his own career and did not care much for cultivating music culture or spending much time in Salzburg since he was busy chasing his own imperial ambitions. Maximilian Gandolph took over and immediately set to work establishing Salzburg as a major center of Catholic culture north of the Alps. He did this with music, architecture, and heavy-handed pro-Catholic legislation. Johann Ernst, the final prince-archbishop of the seventeenth century, carried forth Maximilian's mission but with a greater focus on aligning Salzburg with the imperial practices and values emanating from Vienna. While Maximilian Gandolph seemed to want to set Salzburg apart as individual, Johann Ernst, it seems, looked to assimilate Salzburg within the Holy Roman Empire.



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