Constitutionally Defining Marriage in a Non-Presidential Election Year : A Study of the Vote in Two States




Rausch, John David, Jr.

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In 2004, voters in thirteen states approved amendments to their state constitutions defining marriage as involving one man and one woman. The process of states adding marriage definition amendments to their constitutions continued with voters in two states considering the issue in 2005. This paper examines the political context of the voting outcomes in those two states, Kansas and Texas. It analyzes the influence of religion on the county-level votes for the marriage definition amendments, controlling for various political, demographic, and socioeconomic variables. The analysis reveals that while religious affiliation was an important fact in the political environment, the relationship between support for marriage definition and the 2004 Republican presidential vote was more important. The analysis also exhibits evidence that counties with large African-American populations strongly supported marriage definition amendments.


Prepared for presentation at the 6th Annual State Politics and Policy Conference, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, May 19-20, 2006.


direct democracy, constitution, state government, marriage


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